1-Click

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Amazon.com offering the option to either add an item to the user's cart, or purchase it immediately using 1-Click

1-Click, also called one-click or one-click buying, is the technique of allowing customers to make purchases with the payment information needed to complete the purchase having been entered by the user previously.[1] More particularly, it allows an online shopper using an Internet marketplace to purchase an item without having to use shopping cart software. Instead of manually inputting billing and shipping information for a purchase, a user can use one-click buying to use a predefined address and credit card number to purchase one or more items. Since the expiration of Amazon's patent, there has been an advent of checkout experience platforms, such as PeachPay, Fast, and Bolt, which are democratizing similar one-click checkout flows.

Patent[edit]

The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) issued US 5960411  for this technique to Amazon.com in September 1999. Amazon.com also owns the "1-Click" trademark.

On May 12, 2006, the USPTO ordered a reexamination[2] of the "One-Click" patent, based on a request filed by Peter Calveley.[3] Calveley cited as prior art an earlier e-commerce patent and the Digicash electronic cash system.

On October 9, 2007, the USPTO issued an office action in the reexamination which confirmed the patentability of claims 6 to 10 of the patent.[4] The patent examiner, however, rejected claims 1 to 5 and 11 to 26. In November 2007, Amazon responded by amending the broadest claims (1 and 11) to restrict them to a shopping cart model of commerce. They have also submitted several hundred references for the examiner to consider.[5] In March 2010, the reexamined and amended patent was allowed.[6][7]

Amazon's U.S. patent expired on September 11, 2017.[8]

In Europe, EP application 1134680  on 1-Click ordering was filed with the European Patent Office (EPO) but was rejected by the EPO in 2007 due to obviousness; the decision was upheld in 2011.[9]

A related gift-ordering patent was granted in 2003, but revoked in 2007 following an opposition.[10]

In Canada, the Federal Court of Canada held that the One click patent could not be rejected as a pure business method since it had a physical effect. The Court remanded the application to the Canadian patent office for a reexamination.[11]

Licensing[edit]

Apple Inc.[edit]

Amazon.com in 2000 licensed 1-Click ordering to Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) for use on its online store.[12][13] Apple subsequently added 1-Click ordering to the iTunes Store[14] and iPhoto.[15] Apple paid $1 million to license the patent.

Barnes & Noble[edit]

Amazon filed a patent infringement lawsuit in October 1999 in response to Barnes & Noble's offering a 1-Click ordering option called "Express Lane". After reviewing the evidence, a judge issued a preliminary injunction ordering Barnes & Noble to stop offering Express Lane until the case was settled.[16] Barnes & Noble had developed a way to design around the patent by requiring shoppers to make a second click to confirm their purchase.[17][18] The lawsuit was settled in 2002. The terms of the settlement, including whether or not Barnes & Noble took a license to the patent or paid any money to Amazon, were not disclosed.[19]

In response to the lawsuit, the Free Software Foundation urged a boycott of Amazon.com.[20] The boycott was lifted by GNU in September 2002.[21] [22]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Amazon.com Help: About 1-Click Ordering". www.amazon.com.
  2. ^ Hutcheon, Stephen (May 23, 2006). "Kiwi actor v Amazon.com". Sydney Morning Herald. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  3. ^ "IGDMLGD Blog". Archived from the original on September 25, 2007. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  4. ^ "Examiner Office Action dated Oct 9, 2007 for reexamination serial number 90/007,946". USPTO. Archived from the original on January 14, 2009. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  5. ^ "Amazon surrenders on One-Click shopping monopoly". Out-law.com. November 23, 2007. Archived from the original on December 11, 2008. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  6. ^ "Tech Flash". Archived from the original on April 13, 2010. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
  7. ^ "Electronista". Archived from the original on April 19, 2014. Retrieved April 13, 2010.
  8. ^ "Amazon's patent on one-click payments to expire".
  9. ^ Jeremy Kirk (July 7, 2011). "Europe Rejects One-click-to-buy Amazon Patent Application". IDG News Service.
  10. ^ "EPO revokes Amazon's "Gift Ordering" patent after opposition hearing". European Patent Office. December 7, 2007. Archived from the original on June 4, 2009. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
  11. ^ "Amazon.com, Inc. and The Attorney General of Canada and The Commissioner of Patents, 2010 FC 1011, October 14, 2010" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 4, 2010.
  12. ^ Wolverton, Troy (September 18, 2000). "Apple licenses Amazon's 1-Click". CNET News.com. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  13. ^ "Apple Licenses Amazon.com 1-Click Patent and Trademark". Apple. September 18, 2000.
  14. ^ "iTunes Store Terms of Sale". Apple Inc. Archived from the original on December 7, 2008. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  15. ^ "iPhoto 6.0 Help: Turning 1-Click ordering on and off". Apple Inc. Archived from the original on January 21, 2008. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  16. ^ Wolverton, Troy (March 6, 2002). "Amazon, Barnes&Noble settle patent suit". CNET. Archived from the original on July 30, 2009. Retrieved April 20, 2009.
  17. ^ [Claim 1 of the patent is limited to orders being placed "in response to only a single action being performed"
  18. ^ "My Conversation with Jeff Bezos". O'Reilly Media. Archived from the original on December 18, 2007. Retrieved December 30, 2007.
  19. ^ Wolverton, Troy (March 6, 2002). "Amazon, Barnes&Noble settle patent suit". CNET. Archived from the original on February 3, 2009. Retrieved November 19, 2008.
  20. ^ https://status.fsf.org/notice/3139013
  21. ^ "gnu.org". www.gnu.org.
  22. ^ "Amazon Advertising". www.adcanyon.com.