1.1.1.1

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1.1.1.1
1.1.1.1 logo.png
Developer(s)Cloudflare
Stable release
Android: 6.15
iOS: 6.7
Linux: 2021.8.1
macOS: 1.5.463.0
Windows: 1.5.461.0
PlatformAndroid, iOS, Linux, macOS, Windows
Websitehttps://1.1.1.1/

1.1.1.1 is a free Domain Name System (DNS) service by American company Cloudflare in partnership with APNIC.[1] The service functions as a recursive name server providing domain name resolution for any host on the Internet. The service was announced on April 1, 2018.[2] On November 11, 2018, Cloudflare announced a mobile application of their 1.1.1.1 service for Android and iOS.[3] On September 25, 2019, Cloudflare released WARP, an upgraded version of their original 1.1.1.1 mobile application.[4]

Service[edit]

The 1.1.1.1 DNS service operates recursive name servers for public use at the IP addresses listed below.[5] The addresses are mapped to the nearest operational server by anycast routing.[6] The DNS service is also available for Tor clients.[7] Users can set up the service by manually changing their DNS resolvers to the IP addresses below. Mobile users on both Android and iPhone have the alternative of downloading the 1.1.1.1 mobile application, which automatically configures the DNS resolvers on the device.[8]

1.1.1.1 1.1.1.1 for Families
Filters domains No[9] Yes[10]
Passes ECS No
Validates DNSSEC Yes Yes
Via DoH https://cloudflare-dns.com/dns-query[11] https://security.cloudflare-dns.com/dns-query https://family.cloudflare-dns.com/dns-query
Via DoT 1dot1dot1dot1.cloudflare-dns.com[12] security.cloudflare-dns.com family.cloudflare-dns.com
Via IPv4 1.1.1.1
1.0.0.1
1.1.1.2
1.0.0.2
1.1.1.3
1.0.0.3
Via IPv6 2606:4700:4700::1111
2606:4700:4700::1001
2606:4700:4700::1112
2606:4700:4700::1002
2606:4700:4700::1113
2606:4700:4700::1003

Technology[edit]

1.1.1.1 is a recursive DNS resolver. Cloudflare runs an authoritative DNS resolver with a network of over 20 million Internet properties. With the recursor and the resolver on the same network, some DNS queries can be answered directly.[third-party source needed]

With the release of the 1.1.1.1 mobile application in November 2018, Cloudflare added the ability for users to encrypt their DNS queries over HTTPS (DoH) or TLS (DoT).[13] Later on, a VPN tunnel was implemented based on Cloudflare's own BoringTun, a user space implementation of WireGuard written in Rust.[14][15][16]

Prior usage of the IP address[edit]

Technology websites noted that by using 1.1.1.1 as the IP address for its service, Cloudflare exposed misconfigurations in existing setups that violated Internet standards (such as RFC1918). 1.1.1.1 was not a reserved IP address, yet was abused by many existing routers (mostly those sold by Cisco Systems) and companies for hosting login pages to private networks, exit pages or other purposes, rendering the proper routing of 1.1.1.1 impossible on those systems.[17][18] Additionally, 1.1.1.1 is blocked on many networks and by multiple ISPs because the simplicity of the address means that it was previously often used inappropriately for testing purposes and not legitimate use.[17] These previous uses have led to a huge influx of garbage data to Cloudflare's servers.[18]

Cleanup of 1.1.1.1 and 1.0.0.1[edit]

The 1.0.0.0/8 IP block was assigned in 2010 to APNIC;[19] before this time it was unassigned space.[20] An unassigned IP space, however is not the same as a reserved IP space for private use (called a reserved IP address).[21] For example, AT&T has said it is working on fixing this issue[22][better source needed] within its CPE hardware.

WARP[edit]

In September 2019, Cloudflare released a VPN service called WARP which is built into the 1.1.1.1 mobile app.[23][24][8]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Huston, Geoff (April 2, 2018). "APNIC Labs enters into a research agreement with Cloudflare". APNIC Blog.
  2. ^ Cloudflare launches 1.1.1.1 DNS service that will speed up your internet The Verge, April 1, 2018
  3. ^ Cimpanu, Catalin. "Cloudflare launches Android and iOS apps for its 1.1.1.1 service | ZDNet". ZDNet.
  4. ^ "WARP is here (sorry it took so long)". The Cloudflare Blog. September 25, 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  5. ^ Setting Up 1.1.1.1 Archived May 24, 2018, at the Wayback Machine Speed
  6. ^ Introducing DNS Resolver, 1.1.1.1 (not a joke) DNS resolver, 1.1.1.1, is served by Cloudflare’s Global Anycast Network.
  7. ^ "Introducing DNS Resolver for Tor". Cloudflare. June 5, 2018. Retrieved October 1, 2018.
  8. ^ a b "1.1.1.1 — The free app that makes your Internet faster". 1.1.1.1. Archived from the original on August 17, 2013. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  9. ^ "Does 1.1.1.1 do web content filtering like Cisco's OpenDNS?". Cloudflare Community. November 11, 2018. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  10. ^ "Introducing 1.1.1.1 for Families". The Cloudflare Blog. April 1, 2020. Retrieved November 1, 2020.
  11. ^ "Making requests". The Cloudflare Blog. Archived from the original on August 27, 2021. Retrieved October 6, 2020.
  12. ^ "DNS over TLS · 1.1.1.1 docs". Cloudflare Docs. Archived from the original on October 4, 2021. Retrieved November 13, 2021.
  13. ^ "Introducing Warp: Fixing Mobile Internet Performance and Security". The Cloudflare Blog. April 1, 2019. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  14. ^ Krasnov, Vlad (18 December 2018). "BoringTun, a userspace WireGuard implementation in Rust". Cloudflare Blog. Archived from the original on 4 April 2019. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  15. ^ "CloudFlare Launches "BoringTun" As Rust-Written WireGuard User-Space Implementation". phoronix.com. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
  16. ^ "The Technical Challenges of Building Cloudflare WARP". The Cloudflare Blog. September 25, 2019. Retrieved November 22, 2019.
  17. ^ a b Cherry, Denny (April 5, 2018). "5 reasons Cloudflare's roll-out of 1.1.1.1 has been a disaster". Tech Target. Archived from the original on April 26, 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  18. ^ a b "1.1.1.1: Cloudflare's new DNS attracting 'gigabits per second' of rubbish". ZDNet. April 4, 2018. Retrieved April 26, 2018.
  19. ^ "1/8 and 27/8 allocated to APNIC". NANOG. January 21, 2010. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
  20. ^ List of assigned /8 IPv4 address blocks
  21. ^ Fixing reachability to 1.1.1.1, GLOBALLY!, by Marty Strong, April 10, 2018
  22. ^ "Tweet by @billplein, 3 April 2018".
  23. ^ Khalid, Amrita (April 2, 2019). "Cloudflare's privacy-focused DNS app adds a free VPN". Engadget. Archived from the original on April 2, 2019. Retrieved April 2, 2019.
  24. ^ Humphries, Matthew (September 26, 2019). "Cloudflare Finally Launches Warp, But It's Not a Mobile VPN". PCMag. Retrieved September 27, 2019.

External links[edit]