1,000,000,000

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1000000000
Cardinal One billion (short scale)
One thousand million, or one milliard (long scale)
Ordinal One billionth (short scale)
Factorization 29 · 59
Roman numeral M
Binary 1110111001101011001010000000002
Ternary 21202002000210100013
Quaternary 3232122302200004
Quinary 40220000000005
Senary 2431212453446
Octal 73465450008
Duodecimal 23AA9385412
Hexadecimal 3B9ACA0016
Vigesimal FCA000020
Base 36 GJDGXS36

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard,[1] long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn.[2][3]

In scientific notation, it is written as 1 × 109. The SI prefix giga indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit.

One billion years may be called eon/aeon in astronomy or geology.

Previously in British English (but not in American English), the word "billion" referred exclusively to a million millions (1,000,000,000,000). However, this is no longer as common as earlier, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million (1,000,000,000) for some time.[4] The alternative term "one thousand million" is mainly used in the U.K., or countries such as Spain that uses "one thousand million" as one million million constitutes a billion. The worded figure, as opposed to the numerical figure (one thousand million/1,000,000,000) is used to differentiate between "one thousand million" or "one billion".

The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; whereas "milliard" is seldom used in English,[5] variations on this name often appear in other languages.

In the South Asian numbering system, it is known as 100 crore or 1 Arab.


Visualisation of powers of ten from one to 1 billion

Sense of scale[edit]

The facts below give a sense of how large 1,000,000,000 (109) is in the context of time according to current scientific evidence:

  • 109 seconds is 114 days short of 32 calendar years (≈ 31.7 years).
  • About 109 minutes ago, the Roman Empire was flourishing and Christianity was emerging. (109 minutes is roughly 1,901 years.)
  • About 109 hours ago, modern human beings and their ancestors were living in the Stone Age (more precisely, the Middle Paleolithic). (109 hours is roughly 114,080 years.)
  • About 109 days ago, Australopithecus, an ape-like creature related to an ancestor of modern humans, roamed the African savannas. (109 days is roughly 2.738 million years.)
  • About 109 months ago, dinosaurs walked the Earth during the late Cretaceous. (109 months is roughly 83.3 million years.)
  • About 109 years—a gigaannus—ago, the first multicellular eukaryotes appeared on Earth.
  • It takes approximately 95 years to count from one to one billion in a single sitting.[18]
  • The universe is thought to be about 13.8 × 109 years old.[19]

Distance[edit]

  • 109 inches is 15,783 miles (25,400 km), more than halfway around the world and thus sufficient to reach any point on the globe from any other point.
  • 109 metres (called a gigameter) is almost three times the distance from the Earth to the Moon.
  • 109 kilometres is over six times the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

Finance[edit]

Area[edit]

  • A billion square inches would be a square about one half mile on a side.
  • A piece of finely woven bed sheet cloth that contained a billion holes would measure about 500 square feet (46 m2), large enough to cover a moderate sized apartment.

Volume[edit]

  • There are a billion cubic millimeters in a cubic meter and there are a billion cubic meters in a cubic kilometer.
  • A billion grains of table salt or granulated sugar would occupy a volume of about 2.5 cubic feet (0.071 m3).
  • A billion cubic inches would be a volume comparable to a large commercial building slightly larger than a typical supermarket.

Weight[edit]

  • one billion kilograms (2.2×109 lb) would weigh about as much as 5,525 empty Boeing 747-400s.
  • a cube of iron that weighs one billion pounds (450,000,000 kg) would be 1,521 feet 4 inches (0.28813 mi; 463.70 m) on each side.

Products[edit]

Nature[edit]

  • A small mountain, slightly larger than Stone Mountain Georgia, United States, would weigh (have a mass of) a billion tons.
  • There are billions of worker ants in the largest ant colony in the world,[22] which covers almost 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of the Mediterranean coast.
  • in 1804, the world population was one billion.

Count[edit]

A is a cube; B consists of 1000 cubes of type A, C consists of 1000 Bs; and D consists of 1000 Cs. Thus there are 1 million As in C; and 1,000,000,000 As in D.

Billion-cubes-new.svg

References[edit]

  1. ^ "yard". Investopedia. 
  2. ^ "figures". The Economist Style Guide (11th ed.). The Economist. 2015. 
  3. ^ "6.5 Abbreviating ‘million’ and ‘billion’". English Style Guide. A handbook for authors and translators in the European Commission (PDF) (8th ed.). 5 October 2016. p. 31. 
  4. ^ "How many is a billion?". oxforddictionaries.com. 
  5. ^ "billion,thousand million,milliard". Google Ngram. 
  6. ^ a b "Sloane's A093112 : a(n) = (2^n-1)^2 - 2". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  7. ^ a b "Sloane's A093069 : a(n) = (2^n + 1)^2 - 2". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  8. ^ a b c "Sloane's A001006 : Motzkin numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  9. ^ a b c "Sloane's A000129 : Pell numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  10. ^ "Sloane's A000110 : Bell or exponential numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  11. ^ a b c "Sloane's A001190 : Wedderburn-Etherington numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  12. ^ "Sloane's A054377 : Primary pseudoperfect numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  13. ^ "Sloane's A005165 : Alternating factorials". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  14. ^ "Sloane's A004490 : Colossally abundant numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  15. ^ "Sloane's A002201 : Superior highly composite numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  16. ^ "Sloane's A000396 : Perfect numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  17. ^ "greatest prime number with 10 digits". Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved July 15, 2014. 
  18. ^ "How much is a billion?". Math Forum. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  19. ^ "Cosmic Detectives". The European Space Agency (ESA). 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  20. ^ Panken, Eli (27 July 2016). "Apple Announces It Has Sold One Billion iPhones". NBC News. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  21. ^ Seethamaram, Deep (27 July 2016). "Facebook Posts Strong Profit and Revenue Growth". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  22. ^ Burke, Jeremy. "How the World Became A Giant Ant Colony". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 28 July 2016.