1,000,000,000

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1000000000
Cardinal One billion (short scale)
One thousand million, or one milliard (long scale)
Ordinal One billionth (short scale)
Factorization 29 · 59
Roman numeral M
Binary 1110111001101011001010000000002
Ternary 21202002000210100013
Quaternary 3232122302200004
Quinary 40220000000005
Senary 2431212453446
Octal 73465450008
Duodecimal 23AA9385412
Hexadecimal 3B9ACA0016
Vigesimal FCA000020
Base 36 GJDGXS36

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard,[1] long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn.[2][3]

In scientific notation, it is written as 1 × 109.

Previously in British English (but not in American English), the word "billion" referred exclusively to a million millions (1,000,000,000,000). However, this is no longer as common as earlier, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million (1,000,000,000) for some time.[4][5] The alternative term "one thousand million" is mainly used in the U.K., or countries such as Spain that uses "one thousand million" as one million million constitutes a billion. The worded figure, as opposed to the numerical figure (one thousand million/$1,000,000,000) is used to differentiate between "one thousand million" or "one billion".

In the South Asian numbering system, it is known as 100 crore or 1 Arab.

The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; whereas "milliard" is seldom used in English, variations on this name often appear in other languages (e.g. Slovenian Miljarda, Hungarian (Magyar) milliárd, Indonesian miliar, Polish miliard, Danish milliard, Spanish millardo, French milliard, Italian miliardo, Icelandic milljarður, German Milliarde, Hebrew מיליארד, Finnish miljardi, Dutch miljard, Croatian milijarda, Serbian милијарда, Bulgarian милиард, Russian миллиард, Czech miliarda, Arabic مليار, Romanian miliard, Swedish miljard, Norwegian milliard, Turkish milyar, Esperanto miliardo).

The SI prefix giga indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit. Despite this, B remains the common abbreviation for this number.[citation needed]

See Orders of magnitude (numbers) for larger numbers; and long and short scales.

Selected 10-digit numbers (1,000,000,000–9,999,999,999)[edit]

Visualisation of powers of ten from one to 1 billion

Sense of scale[edit]

The facts below give a sense of how large 1,000,000,000 (109) is in the context of time according to current scientific evidence:

  • 109 seconds is 114 days short of 32 calendar years (≈ 31.7 years).
  • About 109 minutes ago, the Roman Empire was flourishing and Christianity was emerging. (109 minutes is roughly 1,901 years.)
  • About 109 hours ago, modern human beings and their ancestors were living in the Stone Age (more precisely, the Middle Paleolithic). (109 hours is roughly 114,080 years.)
  • About 109 days ago, Australopithecus, an ape-like creature related to an ancestor of modern humans, roamed the African savannas. (109 days is roughly 2.738 million years.)
  • About 109 months ago, dinosaurs walked the Earth during the late Cretaceous. (109 months is roughly 83.3 million years.)
  • About 109 years—a gigaannus—ago, the first multicellular eukaryotes appeared on Earth.
  • It takes approximately 95 years to count from one to one billion in a single sitting.[18]
  • The universe is thought to be about 13.8 × 109 years old.[19]

Distance[edit]

  • 109 inches is 15,783 miles (25,400 km), more than halfway around the world and thus sufficient to reach any point on the globe from any other point.
  • 109 metres (called a gigameter) is almost three times the distance from the Earth to the Moon.
  • 109 kilometres is over six times the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

Finance[edit]

Area[edit]

  • A billion square inches would be a square about one half mile on a side.
  • A piece of finely woven bed sheet cloth that contained a billion holes would measure about 500 square feet (46 m2), large enough to cover a moderate sized apartment.

Volume[edit]

  • There are a billion cubic millimeters in a cubic meter and there are a billion cubic meters in a cubic kilometer.
  • A billion grains of table salt or granulated sugar would occupy a volume of about 2.5 cubic feet (0.071 m3).
  • A billion cubic inches would be a volume comparable to a large commercial building slightly larger than a typical supermarket.

Products[edit]

Nature[edit]

  • A small mountain, slightly larger than Stone Mountain Georgia, United States, would weigh (have a mass of) a billion tons.
  • There are billions of worker ants in the largest ant colony in the world,[22] which covers 4,000 miles of the Mediterranean coast.

Count[edit]

A is a cube; B consists of 1000 cubes of type A, C consists of 1000 Bs; and D consists of 1000 Cs. Thus there are 1 million As in C; and 1,000,000,000 As in D.

Billion-cubes-new.svg

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.investopedia.com/terms/y/yard.asp
  2. ^ "figures". The Economist Style Guide (11th ed.). The Economist. 2015. 
  3. ^ "6.5 Abbreviating 'million' and 'billion'". English Style Guide. A handbook for authors and translators in the European Commission (PDF) (8th ed.). 5 October 2016. p. 31. 
  4. ^ "How many is a billion?". oxforddictionaries.com. 
  5. ^ https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?content=billion%2Cthousand+million%2Cmilliard&year_start=1808&year_end=2008&corpus=18&smoothing=3&share=
  6. ^ a b "Sloane's A093112 : a(n) = (2^n-1)^2 - 2". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  7. ^ a b "Sloane's A093069 : a(n) = (2^n + 1)^2 - 2". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  8. ^ a b c "Sloane's A001006 : Motzkin numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  9. ^ a b c "Sloane's A000129 : Pell numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  10. ^ "Sloane's A000110 : Bell or exponential numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  11. ^ a b c "Sloane's A001190 : Wedderburn-Etherington numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  12. ^ "Sloane's A054377 : Primary pseudoperfect numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  13. ^ "Sloane's A005165 : Alternating factorials". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  14. ^ "Sloane's A004490 : Colossally abundant numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  15. ^ "Sloane's A002201 : Superior highly composite numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  16. ^ "Sloane's A000396 : Perfect numbers". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved 2016-06-18. 
  17. ^ "greatest prime number with 10 digits". Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved July 15, 2014. 
  18. ^ "How much is a billion?". Math Forum. Retrieved 8 May 2015. 
  19. ^ "Cosmic Detectives". The European Space Agency (ESA). 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-05-01. 
  20. ^ Panken, Eli (27 July 2016). "Apple Announces It Has Sold One Billion iPhones". NBC News. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  21. ^ Seethamaram, Deep (27 July 2016). "Facebook Posts Strong Profit and Revenue Growth". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 28 July 2016. 
  22. ^ Burke, Jeremy. "How the World Became A Giant Ant Colony". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 28 July 2016.