Start of the 100 metres final at the 2012 Olympic Games.
|World||Usain Bolt 9.58 (2009)|
|Olympic||Usain Bolt 9.63 (2012)|
|World||Florence Griffith 10.49 (1988)|
|Olympic||Florence Griffith 10.62 (1988)|
The 100 metres, or 100-meter dash, is a sprint race in track and field competitions. The shortest common outdoor running distance, it is one of the most popular and prestigious events in the sport of athletics. It has been contested at the Summer Olympics since 1896 for men and since 1928 for women.
The reigning 100 m Olympic champion is often named "the fastest man in the world." The World Championships 100 metres has been contested since 1983. Jamaicans Usain Bolt and Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce are the reigning world and Olympic champions in the men's and women's 100 metres, respectively.
On an outdoor 400 metres running track, the 100 m is run on the home straight, with the start usually being set on an extension to make it a straight-line race. Runners begin in the starting blocks and the race begins when an official fires the starter's pistol. Sprinters typically reach top speed after somewhere between 50–60 m. Their speed then slows towards the finish line.
The 10-second barrier has historically been a barometer of fast men's performances, while the best female sprinters take eleven seconds or less to complete the race. The current men's world record is 9.58 seconds, set by Jamaica's Usain Bolt in 2009, while the women's world record of 10.49 seconds set by American Florence Griffith-Joyner in 1988 remains unbroken.
The 100 m (109.361 yards) emerged from the metrication of the 100 yards (91.44 m), a now defunct distance originally contested in English-speaking countries. The event is largely held outdoors as few indoor facilities have a 100 m straight.
- 1 Race dynamics
- 2 10-second barrier
- 3 Record performances
- 4 Fastest 100 metres runners
- 4.1 All-time top 25 men
- 4.2 All-time top 25 women
- 4.3 Best Year Performances
- 4.4 Junior (under-20) men
- 4.5 Women
- 4.6 Junior (under-20) women
- 4.7 Youth (under-18) boys
- 4.8 Youth (under-18) girls
- 4.9 Paralympic men
- 4.10 Paralympic women
- 5 Olympic medalists
- 6 World Championship medalists
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
At high level meets, the time between the gun and first kick against the starting block is measured electronically, via sensors built in the gun and the blocks. A reaction time less than 0.1 s is considered a false start. The 0.1-second interval accounts for the sum of the time it takes for the sound of the starter's pistol to reach the runners' ears, and the time they take to react to it.
For many years a sprinter was disqualified if responsible for two false starts individually. However, this rule allowed some major races to be restarted so many times that the sprinters started to lose focus. The next iteration of the rule, introduced in February 2003, meant that one false start was allowed among the field, but anyone responsible for a subsequent false start was disqualified.
This rule led to some sprinters deliberately false-starting to gain a psychological advantage: an individual with a slower reaction time might false-start, forcing the faster starters to wait and be sure of hearing the gun for the subsequent start, thereby losing some of their advantage. To avoid such abuse and to improve spectator enjoyment, the IAAF implemented a further change in the 2010 season – a false starting athlete now receives immediate disqualification. This proposal was met with objections when first raised in 2005, on the grounds that it would not leave any room for innocent mistakes. Justin Gatlin commented, "Just a flinch or a leg cramp could cost you a year's worth of work." The rule had a dramatic impact at the 2011 World Championships, when current world record holder Usain Bolt was disqualified.
Runners typically reach their top speed just past the halfway point of the race and they progressively decelerate in the later stages of the race. Maintaining that top speed for as long as possible is a primary focus of training for the 100 m. Pacing and running tactics do not play a significant role in the 100 m, as success in the event depends more on pure athletic qualities and technique.
The winner, by IAAF Competition Rules, is determined by the first athlete with his or her torso (not including limbs, head, or neck) over the nearer edge of the finish line. When the placing of the athletes is not obvious, a photo finish is used to distinguish which runner was first to cross the line.
Climatic conditions, in particular air resistance, can affect performances in the 100 m. A strong head wind is very detrimental to performance, while a tail wind can improve performances significantly. For this reason, a maximum tail wind of 2.0 m/s is allowed for a 100 m performance to be considered eligible for records, or "wind legal."
Furthermore, sprint athletes perform better at high altitudes because of the thinner air, which provides less air resistance. In theory, the thinner air would also make breathing slightly more difficult (due to the partial pressure of oxygen being lower), but this difference is negligible for sprint distances where all the oxygen needed for the short dash is already in the muscles and bloodstream when the race starts (explaining why many athletes choose not to breathe for the duration of the race). While there are no limitations on altitude, performances made at altitudes greater than 1000 m above sea level are marked with an "A."
Gender and ethnicity
Only male sprinters have beaten the 100 m 10-second barrier, nearly all of them being of West African descent. Namibian (formerly South-West Africa) Frankie Fredericks became the first man of non-West African heritage to achieve the feat in 1991 and in 2003 Australia's Patrick Johnson (who has Irish and Indigenous Australian heritage) became the first sub-10-second runner without an African background.
In the Prefontaine Classic 2015 Diamond League meet at Eugene, Su Bingtian ran a time of 9.99 seconds, becoming the first Asian athlete to officially break the 10-second barrier. In the 2015 Birmingham Grand Prix Diamond League meet, British athlete Adam Gemili, who is of mixed Iranian and Moroccan descent, ran a time of 9.97 seconds on home soil, becoming the first athlete with either North African or Middle Eastern heritage to break the ten-second barrier. Of the six men's continental record holders, currently three of them were born in Nigeria.
It is believed that biological factors may be largely responsible for the notable success in sprinting events enjoyed by athletes of West African descent. This includes:
Relatively less subcutaneous fat on arms and legs and proportionately more lean body and muscle mass, broader shoulders, larger quadriceps, and bigger, more developed musculature in general;
Denser, shallower chests;
Higher center of gravity, generally shorter sitting height, narrower hips, and lighter calves;
Longer arm span and "distal elongation of segments" – the hand is relatively longer than the forearm, which in turn is relatively longer than the upper arm; the foot is relatively longer than the tibia (leg), which is relatively longer than the thigh;
Faster patellar tendon reflex;
Greater body density, which is likely due to higher bone mineral density and heavier bone mass at all stages in life, including infancy (despite evidence of lower calcium intake and a higher prevalence of lactose intolerance, which prevents consumption of dairy products);
Modestly, but significantly, higher levels of plasma testosterone (3-19 percent), which is anabolic, theoretically contributing to greater muscle mass, lower fat, and the ability to perform at a higher level of intensity with quicker recovery;
The ACTN3 protein, a "speed gene" most common among persons of West African descent that renders fast twitch muscle fibers fast. African American 200 m and 400 m world champion Michael Johnson has suggested that the presence of ACTN3 is at the root of the success of these athletes in sprinting events;
And finally, a higher percentage of fast-twitch muscle fibers (Type II) and more anaerobic enzymes, which can translate into more explosive energy. The enzyme creatine kinase is abundantly expressed in these fibers. The enzyme rapidly regenerates the biological fuel molecule ATP needed for the sprint. The enzyme has been reported to be twice as high in subjects of sub-Saharan African descent. Creatine kinase is the final common pathway of muscle activity. It is tightly bound to the muscle fibers and directly fuels fast muscle contraction. Therefore, the creatine kinase system is considered to be the major factor, downstream of other factors, that modulates the biological capacity to sprint.
Top sprinters of differing ancestry, such as Christophe Lemaitre, are believed to be exceptions in that they too likely have the genes favourable for sprinting. Colin Jackson, an athlete with mixed ethnic background and former world record holder in the 110 metre hurdles, noted that both his parents were talented athletes and suggested that biological inheritance was the greatest influence, rather than any perceived racial factor. Furthermore, successful black role models in track events may reinforce the racial disparity.
Major 100 m races, such as at the Olympic Games, attract much attention, particularly when the world record is thought to be within reach.
The men's world record has been improved upon twelve times since electronic timing became mandatory in 1977. The current men's world record of 9.58 s is held by Usain Bolt of Jamaica, set at the 2009 World Athletics Championships final on 16 August 2009, breaking his own previous world record by 0.11 s. The current women's world record of 10.49 s was set by Florence Griffith-Joyner of the US, in Indianapolis, Indiana, on 16 July 1988.
Jim Hines, Ronnie Ray Smith and Charles Green were the first to break the 10-second barrier in the 100 m, all on 20 June 1968, the Night of Speed. Hines also recorded the first legal electronically timed sub-10 second 100 m in winning the 100 metres at the 1968 Olympics. Bob Hayes ran a wind-assisted 9.91 seconds at the 1964 Olympics.
Updated 5 July 2015.
|Time (s)||Wind||Athlete||Nation||Time (s)||Wind||Athlete||Nation|
|Africa (records)||9.85||+1.7||Olusoji Fasuba||Nigeria||10.79||+1.1||Blessing Okagbare||Nigeria|
|Asia (records)||9.93||+0.4||Femi Ogunode||Qatar||10.79||0.0||Li Xuemei||People's Republic of China|
|Europe (records)||9.86||+0.6||Francis Obikwelu||Portugal||10.73||+2.0||Christine Arron||France|
|North, Central America
and Caribbean (records)
|9.58 WR||+0.9||Usain Bolt||Jamaica||10.49 WR||0.0||Florence Griffith-Joyner||United States|
|Oceania (records)||9.93||+1.8||Patrick Johnson||Australia||11.11||+1.9||Melissa Breen||Australia|
|South America (records)||10.00[A]||+1.6||Robson da Silva||Brazil||11.01||+1.4||Ana Cláudia Lemos||Brazil|
Fastest 100 metres runners
All-time top 25 men
As of 5 July 2015:
|1||9.58 WR||+0.9||Usain Bolt||Jamaica||16 August 2009||Berlin|
|2||9.69||+2.0||Tyson Gay||United States||20 September 2009||Shanghai|
|−0.1||Yohan Blake||Jamaica||23 August 2012||Lausanne|
|4||9.72||+0.2||Asafa Powell||Jamaica||2 September 2008||Lausanne|
|5||9.74||+0.9||Justin Gatlin||United States||15 May 2015||Doha|
|6||9.78||+0.9||Nesta Carter||Jamaica||29 August 2010||Rieti|
|7||9.79||+0.1||Maurice Greene||United States||16 June 1999||Athens|
|8||9.80||+1.3||Steve Mullings||Jamaica||4 June 2011||Eugene|
|9||9.82||+1.7||Richard Thompson||Trinidad and Tobago||21 June 2014||Port of Spain|
|10||9.84||+0.7||Donovan Bailey||Canada||27 July 1996||Atlanta|
|+0.2||Bruny Surin||Canada||22 August 1999||Seville|
|+1.3||Trayvon Bromell||United States||25 June 2015||Eugene|
|13||9.85||+1.2||Leroy Burrell||United States||6 July 1994||Lausanne|
|+1.7||Olusoji Fasuba||Nigeria||12 May 2006||Ad-Dawhah|
|+1.3||Mike Rodgers||United States||4 June 2011||Eugene|
|16||9.86||+1.2||Carl Lewis||United States||25 August 1991||Tokyo|
|−0.7||Frankie Fredericks||Namibia||3 July 1996||Lausanne|
|+1.8||Ato Boldon||Trinidad and Tobago||19 April 1998||Walnut|
|+0.6||Francis Obikwelu||Portugal||22 August 2004||Athens|
|+1.4||Keston Bledman||Trinidad and Tobago||23 June 2012||Port of Spain|
|+1.3||Jimmy Vicaut||France||4 July 2015||Saint-Denis|
|22||9.87||+0.3||Linford Christie||United Kingdom||15 August 1993||Stuttgart|
|−0.2||Obadele Thompson [A]||Barbados||11 September 1998||Johannesburg|
|24||9.88||+1.8||Shawn Crawford||United States||19 June 2004||Eugene|
|+1.0||Walter Dix||United States||8 August 2010||Nottwil|
|+0.9||Ryan Bailey||United States||29 August 2010||Rieti|
|+1.0||Michael Frater||Jamaica||30 June 2011||Lausanne|
More facts about these male runners
- Usain Bolt also holds the record for the fastest 100 metres with a running start at 8.70 (41 km/hr). This was achieved during a 150 metres race in Manchester 2009, completed in 14.35 (also a World Record).
- Tyson Gay ran a time of 9.68 s set on 29 June 2008 during the 2008 U.S. Olympic Track & Field Trials at Hayward Field in Eugene, Oregon, but the tail wind speed was +4.1 m/s, more than double the IAAF legal limit of +2.0 m/s.
- Obadele Thompson ran 9.69 in El Paso, Texas in April 1996, which stood as the fastest ever 100m time for 12 years until Tyson Gay's June 2008 performance, but the tail wind speed was +5.7 m/s.
- Andre De Grasse of Markham, Ontario, Canada, ran 9.75 s on June 12, 2015, during the NCAA Track and Field Championships, in Eugene, Oregon, U.S.A, but the tail wind speed was +2.7 m/s.
- Justin Gatlin ran 9.77 in Doha on 12 May 2006, which was at the time ratified as a world record. However, the record was rescinded in 2007 after he failed a doping test in April 2006.
- Carl Lewis ran a time of 9.78 seconds at the 1988 US Olympic trials in Indianapolis, but the tail wind speed was +5.2 m/s.
- Tim Montgomery's time of 9.78 at Paris on 14 September 2002 was rescinded following his indictment in the BALCO scandal on drug use and drug trafficking charges. The time had stood as the world record until Asafa Powell first ran 9.77.
- Ben Johnson ran 9.79 at Seoul on 24 September 1988, but he was disqualified after he tested positive for stanozolol after the race. He subsequently admitted to drug use between 1981 and 1988, and his time of 9.83 at Rome on 30 August 1987 was rescinded. Carl Lewis's 9.92 in the Seoul race was therefore recognized as the world record, and his two prior runs of 9.93 were seen as having equalled the previous world record.
- Ato Boldon ran four 9.86 races (two in 1998, two in 1999).
- Steve Mullings is serving a lifetime ban for doping.
All-time top 25 women
As of August 2015
|1||10.49||0.0||Florence Griffith-Joyner||United States||16 July 1988||Indianapolis|
|2||10.64||+1.2||Carmelita Jeter||United States||20 September 2009||Shanghai|
|3||10.65 [A]||+1.1||Marion Jones||United States||12 September 1998||Johannesburg|
|4||10.70||+0.6||Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce||Jamaica||29 June 2012||Kingston|
|5||10.73||+2.0||Christine Arron||France||19 August 1998||Budapest|
|6||10.74||+1.3||Merlene Ottey||Jamaica||7 September 1996||Milan|
|7||10.75||+0.4||Kerron Stewart||Jamaica||10 July 2009||Rome|
|8||10.76||+1.7||Evelyn Ashford||United States||22 August 1984||Zürich|
|+1.1||Veronica Campbell-Brown||Jamaica||31 May 2011||Ostrava|
|10||10.77||+0.9||Irina Privalova||Russia||6 July 1994||Lausanne|
|+0.7||Ivet Lalova||Bulgaria||19 June 2004||Plovdiv|
|12||10.78 [A]||+1.0||Dawn Sowell||United States||3 June 1989||Provo|
|10.78||+1.8||Torri Edwards||United States||26 June 2008||Eugene|
|14||10.79||0.0||Li Xuemei||People's Republic of China||18 October 1997||Shanghai|
|−0.1||Inger Miller||United States||22 August 1999||Seville|
|+1.1||Blessing Okagbare||Nigeria||27 July 2013||London|
|+1.5||English Gardner||United States||26 June 2015||Eugene|||
|18||10.80||+0.8||Tori Bowie||United States||18 July 2014||Monaco|
|19||10.81||+1.7||Marlies Göhr||East Germany||8 June 1983||Berlin|
|+1.7||Murielle Ahoure||Ivory Coast||30 May 2015||Eugene|||
|−0.3||Dafne Schippers||Netherlands||24 August 2015||Beijing|||
|22||10.82||−1.0||Gail Devers||United States||1 August 1992||Barcelona|
|+0.4||Gwen Torrence||United States||3 September 1994||Paris|
|−0.3||Zhanna Block||Ukraine||6 August 2001||Edmonton|
|−0.7||Sherone Simpson||Jamaica||24 June 2006||Kingston|
More facts about these female runners
- Florence Griffith-Joyner's World Record has been the subject of a controversy due to strong suspicion of a defective anemometer measuring a tailwind lower than actually present; since 1997 the International Athletics Annual of the Association of Track and Field Statisticians has listed this performance as "probably strongly wind assisted, but recognized as a world record." It can be reasonable to assume a wind reading of about +4.7 m/s for Griffith-Joyner's quarter-final. Her 10.61 the following day and 10.62 at the 1988 Olympics would still make her the world record holder. Sheila Echols' 10.83 clocking was set in the same quarter-final race at the US Olympic trials as Griffith-Joyner's world record, her next best time is 10.99, from the semi-finals of the same meet.
- Gail Devers also has two other 10.82 performances, 7 July 1993 in Lausanne (+1.5) and 16 August 1993 in the World Championship final in Stuttgart (−0.3).
Best Year Performances
As of June 1, 2015
Junior (under-20) men
|Rank||Fastest time (s)||Wind (m/s)||Athlete||Country||Date||Location|
|1||9.97||+1.8||Trayvon Bromell||United States||13 June 2014||Eugene|
|2||10.00||+1.6||Trentavis Friday||United States||5 July 2014||Eugene|
|3||10.01||+0.0||Darrel Brown||Trinidad and Tobago||24 August 2003||Saint-Denis|
|+1.6||Jeff Demps||United States||28 June 2008||Eugene|
|+0.9||Yoshihide Kiryu||Japan||29 April 2013||Hiroshima|
|6||10.03||+0.7||Marcus Rowland||United States||31 July 2009||Port of Spain|
|7||10.04||+1.7||D'Angelo Cherry||United States||10 June 2009||Fayetteville|
|+0.2||Christophe Lemaitre||France||24 July 2009||Novi Sad|
|9||10.05||+0.1||Adam Gemili||Great Britain||11 July 2012||Barcelona|
|10||10.06||+2.0||Dwain Chambers||Great Britain||25 July 1997||Ljubljana|
|+1.5||Walter Dix||United States||27 May 2005||New York City|
- British sprinter Mark Lewis-Francis recorded a time of 9.97 seconds on 5 August 2001 (aged 18 years, 334 days) but the wind gauge malfunctioned, invalidating the run.
- Nigerian sprinters Davidson Ezinwa and Sunday Emmanuel ran 10.05 (4 January 1990) and 10.06 (26 April 1997), respectively, but without wind gauge.
- Trayvon Bromell recorded a time of 9.77 s with a strong tailwind of +4.2 m/s on May 2014 during the Big 12 Outdoor Track Championships
Junior (under-20) women
Updated 25 July 2015[update]
|Rank||Fastest time (s)||Wind (m/s)||Athlete||Nation||Date||Location||Ref|
|1||10.88||+2.0||Marlies Göhr||East Germany||1 July 1977||Dresden|
|2||10.89||+1.8||Katrin Krabbe||East Germany||20 July 1988||Berlin|
|3||10.98||+2.0||Candace Hill||United States||20 June 2015||Shoreline|||
|4||10.99||+0.9||Ángela Tenorio||Ecuador||22 July 2015||Toronto|||
|5||11.03||+1.7||Silke Gladisch-Möller||East Germany||8 June 1983||Berlin|
|+0.6||English Gardner||United States||14 May 2011||Tucson|
|7||11.04||+1.4||Angela Williams||United States||5 June 1999||Boise|
|8||11.07||+0.7||Bianca Knight||United States||27 June 2008||Eugene|
|9||11.08||+2.0||Brenda Morehead||United States||21 June 1976||Eugene|
|10||11.10||+0.9||Kaylin Whitney||United States||5 July 2014||Eugene|
Youth (under-18) boys
Updated 13 September 2015[update]
|Rank||Fastest time (s)||Wind (m/s)||Athlete||Country||Date||Location||Ref|
|1||10.19||+0.5||Yoshihide Kiryu||Japan||3 November 2012||Fukuroi|
|2||10.20||+1.5||Tlotliso Leotlela||South Africa||7 September 2015||Apia|||
|3||10.23||+0.8||Tamunosiki Atorudibo||Nigeria||23 March 2002||Enugu|
|+1.2||Rynell Parson||United States||21 June 2007||Indianapolis|
|5||10.24||+0.0||Darrel Brown||Trinidad and Tobago||14 April 2001||Bridgetown|
|6||10.25||+1.5||J-Mee Samuels||United States||11 July 2004||Knoxville|
|+1.6||Jeff Demps||United States||1 August 2007||Knoxville|
|8||10.26||+1.2||Deworski Odom||United States||21 July 1994||Lisboa|
|−0.1||Sunday Emmanuel||Nigeria||18 March 1995||Bauchi|
|10||10.27||+0.2||Henry Thomas||United States||19 May 1984||Norwalk|
|+1.6||Curtis Johnson||United States||30 June 1990||Fresno|
|+1.0||Ivory Williams||United States||8 June 2002||Sacramento|
|−0.2||Jazeel Murphy||Jamaica||23 April 2011||Montego Bay|
Youth (under-18) girls
Updated 20 June 2015[update]
|Rank||Fastest time (s)||Wind (m/s)||Athlete||Nation||Date||Location||Ref|
|1||10.98||+2.0||Candace Hill||United States||20 June 2015||Shoreline|||
|2||11.10||+0.9||Kaylin Whitney||United States||5 July 2014||Eugene|||
|3||11.13||+2.0||Chandra Cheeseborough||United States||21 June 1976||Eugene|
|4||11.14||+1.7||Marion Jones||United States||6 June 1992||Norwalk|
|−0.5||Angela Williams||United States||21 June 1997||Edwardsville|
|6||11.16||+1.2||Gabrielle Mayo||United States||22 June 2006||Indianapolis|
|7||11.17 A||+0.6||Wendy Vereen||United States||3 July 1983||Colorado Springs|
|8||11.20 A||+1.2||Raelene Boyle||Australia||15 October 1968||Mexico City|
|9||11.24||+1.2||Jeneba Tarmoh||United States||22 June 2006||Indianapolis|
|+0.8||Jodie Williams||Great Britain||31 May 2010||Bedford|
Updated to 1 January 2015
|Classification||Fastest time (s)||Wind (m/s)||Athlete||Country||Date||Location|
|T11||10.92||+1.8||David Brown||United States||18 April 2014||Walnut|
|T12||10.66||−0.4||Elchin Muradov||Azerbaijan||19 June 2010||Imola|
|T13||10.46||+0.6||Jason Smyth||Ireland||1 September 2012||London|
|T32||23.25||+0.0||Martin McDonagh||Ireland||13 August 1999||Nottingham|
|T33||16.81||+0.8||Ahmad Almutairi||Kuwait||20 October 2014||Incheon|
|T34||15.33||+1.2||Walid Ktila||Tunisia||27 February 2014||Sharjah|
|T35||12.29||−0.3||Yang Sen||People's Republic of China||13 September 2008||Beijing|
|T36||11.90||-0.5||Evgenii Shvetcov||Russia||22 July 2013||Lyon|
|T37||11.48||-0.7||Andrey Vdovin||Russia||22 July 2013||Lyon|
|T38||10.79||+0.4||Evan O'Hanlon||Australia||1 September 2012||London|
|T42||12.11||+1.2||Heinrich Popow||Germany||12 July 2013||Leverkusen|
|T43||10.57||+1.9||Alan Fonteles Cardoso Oliveira||Brazil||28 July 2013||London|
|T44||10.75||+1.9||Richard Browne||United States||28 July 2013||London|
|T45||10.94||+0.2||Yohansson Nascimento||Brazil||6 September 2012||London|
|T47||10.72||+0.0||Ajibola Adeoye||Nigeria||6 September 1992||Barcelona|
|T51||21.11||+1.2||Toni Piispanen||Finland||17 May 2012||Pratteln|
|T52||16.73||+0.4||Paul Nitz||United States||20 May 2012||Nottwil|
|T53||14.17||+1.0||Brent Lakatos||Canada||17 May 2014||Nottwil|
|T54||13.63||+1.0||Leo-Pekka Tähti||Finland||1 September 2012||London|
Updated to 1 January 2015
|Classification||Fastest time (s)||Wind (m/s)||Athlete||Country||Date||Location|
|T11||12.01||+1.2||Terezinha Guilhermina||Brazil||5 September 2012||London|
|T12||11.91||+0.6||Zhou Guohua||People's Republic of China||1 September 2012||London|
|T13||11.99||−0.9||Omara Durand||Cuba||17 November 2011||Guadalajara|
|T32||37.67||+0.0||Lindsay Wright||United Kingdom||25 July 1997||Nottingham|
|T33||21.59||−0.4||Kristen Messer||United States||31 August 2012||London|
|T34||17.31||+1.0||Hannah Cockroft||United Kingdom||17 May 2014||Nottwil|
|T35||14.63||+0.4||Maria Lyle||United Kingdom||31 May 2014||Bedford|
|T36||13.82||+0.3||Wang Fang||People's Republic of China||16 September 2008||Beijing|
|T37||13.68||+0.4||Mandy François-Elie||France||8 June 2013||Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire|
|T38||13.04||+0.3||Sophie Hahn||United Kingdom||18 May 2014||Loughborough|
|T42||15.18||−0.5||Martina Caironi||Italy||6 June 2013||Rome|
|T43||12.96||+0.8||Marlou van Rhijn||Netherlands||15 June 2013||Berlin|
|T44||12.98||+0.0||April Holmes||United States||1 July 2006||Atlanta|
|T45||14.00||+0.0||G Cole||Canada||2 June 1980||Arnhem|
|T46||11.95||−0.2||Yunidis Castillo||Cuba||4 September 2012||London|
|T51||32.08||+0.0||V Hill||United States||27 August 1989||Stoke Mandeville|
|T52||18.67||+1.7||Michelle Stilwell||Canada||14 July 2012||Windsor|
|T53||16.22||−0.2||Huang Lisha||People's Republic of China||12 September 2008||Beijing|
|T54||15.82||+0.5||Wenjun Liu||People's Republic of China||8 September 2012||London|
||Thomas Burke (USA)||Fritz Hofmann (GER)|| Francis Lane (USA)
Alajos Szokolyi (HUN)
||Frank Jarvis (USA)||Walter Tewksbury (USA)||Stan Rowley (AUS)|
|1904 St. Louis
||Archie Hahn (USA)||Nate Cartmell (USA)||William Hogenson (USA)|
||Reggie Walker (RSA)||James Rector (USA)||Robert Kerr (CAN)|
||Ralph Craig (USA)||Alvah Meyer (USA)||Donald Lippincott (USA)|
||Charlie Paddock (USA)||Morris Kirksey (USA)||Harry Edward (GBR)|
||Harold Abrahams (GBR)||Jackson Scholz (USA)||Arthur Porritt (NZL)|
||Percy Williams (CAN)||Jack London (GBR)||Georg Lammers (GER)|
|1932 Los Angeles
||Eddie Tolan (USA)||Ralph Metcalfe (USA)||Arthur Jonath (GER)|
||Jesse Owens (USA)||Ralph Metcalfe (USA)||Tinus Osendarp (NED)|
||Harrison Dillard (USA)||Barney Ewell (USA)||Lloyd LaBeach (PAN)|
||Lindy Remigino (USA)||Herb McKenley (JAM)||McDonald Bailey (GBR)|
||Bobby Morrow (USA)||Thane Baker (USA)||Hector Hogan (AUS)|
||Armin Hary (EUA)||Dave Sime (USA)||Peter Radford (GBR)|
||Bob Hayes (USA)||Enrique Figuerola (CUB)||Harry Jerome (CAN)|
|1968 Mexico City
||Jim Hines (USA)||Lennox Miller (JAM)||Charles Greene (USA)|
||Valeriy Borzov (URS)||Robert Taylor (USA)||Lennox Miller (JAM)|
||Hasely Crawford (TRI)||Don Quarrie (JAM)||Valeriy Borzov (URS)|
||Allan Wells (GBR)||Silvio Leonard (CUB)||Petar Petrov (BUL)|
|1984 Los Angeles
||Carl Lewis (USA)||Sam Graddy (USA)||Ben Johnson (CAN)|
||Carl Lewis (USA)||Linford Christie (GBR)||Calvin Smith (USA)|
||Linford Christie (GBR)||Frankie Fredericks (NAM)||Dennis Mitchell (USA)|
||Donovan Bailey (CAN)||Frankie Fredericks (NAM)||Ato Boldon (TRI)|
||Maurice Greene (USA)||Ato Boldon (TRI)||Obadele Thompson (BAR)|
||Justin Gatlin (USA)||Francis Obikwelu (POR)||Maurice Greene (USA)|
||Usain Bolt (JAM)||Richard Thompson (TRI)||Walter Dix (USA)|
||Usain Bolt (JAM)||Yohan Blake (JAM)||Justin Gatlin (USA)|
||Betty Robinson (USA)||Fanny Rosenfeld (CAN)||Ethel Smith (CAN)|
|1932 Los Angeles
||Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)||Hilda Strike (CAN)||Wilhelmina von Bremen (USA)|
||Helen Stephens (USA)||Stanisława Walasiewicz (POL)||Käthe Krauß (GER)|
||Fanny Blankers-Koen (NED)||Dorothy Manley (GBR)||Shirley Strickland (AUS)|
||Marjorie Jackson (AUS)||Daphne Hasenjager (RSA)||Shirley Strickland de la Hunty (AUS)|
||Betty Cuthbert (AUS)||Christa Stubnick (EUA)||Marlene Matthews (AUS)|
||Wilma Rudolph (USA)||Dorothy Hyman (GBR)||Giuseppina Leone (ITA)|
||Wyomia Tyus (USA)||Edith McGuire (USA)||Ewa Kłobukowska (POL)|
|1968 Mexico City
||Wyomia Tyus (USA)||Barbara Ferrell (USA)||Irena Szewińska (POL)|
||Renate Stecher (GDR)||Raelene Boyle (AUS)||Silvia Chibás (CUB)|
||Annegret Richter (FRG)||Renate Stecher (GDR)||Inge Helten (FRG)|
||Lyudmila Kondratyeva (URS)||Marlies Göhr (GDR)||Ingrid Auerswald (GDR)|
|1984 Los Angeles
||Evelyn Ashford (USA)||Alice Brown (USA)||Merlene Ottey (JAM)|
||Florence Griffith-Joyner (USA)||Evelyn Ashford (USA)||Heike Drechsler (GDR)|
||Gail Devers (USA)||Juliet Cuthbert (JAM)||Irina Privalova (EUN)|
||Gail Devers (USA)||Merlene Ottey (JAM)||Gwen Torrence (USA)|
||Vacant||Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)||Merlene Ottey (JAM)|
|Tayna Lawrence (JAM)|
||Yulia Nestsiarenka (BLR)||Lauryn Williams (USA)||Veronica Campbell (JAM)|
||Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)||Sherone Simpson (JAM)||none awarded|
|Kerron Stewart (JAM)|
||Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (JAM)||Carmelita Jeter (USA)||Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)|
World Championship medalists
|1983 Helsinki||Carl Lewis (USA)||Calvin Smith (USA)||Emmit King (USA)|
|1987 Rome||Carl Lewis (USA)||Raymond Stewart (JAM)||Linford Christie (GBR)|
|1991 Tokyo||Carl Lewis (USA)||Leroy Burrell (USA)||Dennis Mitchell (USA)|
|1993 Stuttgart||Linford Christie (GBR)||Andre Cason (USA)||Dennis Mitchell (USA)|
|1995 Gothenburg||Donovan Bailey (CAN)||Bruny Surin (CAN)||Ato Boldon (TRI)|
|1997 Athens||Maurice Greene (USA)||Donovan Bailey (CAN)||Tim Montgomery (USA)|
|1999 Seville||Maurice Greene (USA)||Bruny Surin (CAN)||Dwain Chambers (GBR)|
|2001 Edmonton||Maurice Greene (USA)||Bernard Williams (USA)||Ato Boldon (TRI)|
|2003 Paris||Kim Collins (SKN)||Darrel Brown (TRI)||Darren Campbell (GBR)|
|2005 Helsinki||Justin Gatlin (USA)||Michael Frater (JAM)||Kim Collins (SKN)|
|2007 Osaka||Tyson Gay (USA)||Derrick Atkins (BAH)||Asafa Powell (JAM)|
|2009 Berlin||Usain Bolt (JAM)||Tyson Gay (USA)||Asafa Powell (JAM)|
|2011 Daegu||Yohan Blake (JAM)||Walter Dix (USA)||Kim Collins (SKN)|
|2013 Moscow||Usain Bolt (JAM)||Justin Gatlin (USA)||Nesta Carter (JAM)|
|2015 Beijing||Usain Bolt (JAM)||Justin Gatlin (USA)|| Trayvon Bromell (USA)
Andre De Grasse (CAN)
|1983 Helsinki||Marlies Oelsner-Göhr (GDR)||Marita Koch (GDR)||Diane Williams (USA)|
|1987 Rome||Silke Gladisch-Möller (GDR)||Heike Daute-Drechsler (GDR)||Merlene Ottey (JAM)|
|1991 Tokyo||Katrin Krabbe (GER)||Gwen Torrence (USA)||Merlene Ottey (JAM)|
|1993 Stuttgart||Gail Devers (USA)||Merlene Ottey (JAM)||Gwen Torrence (USA)|
|1995 Gothenburg||Gwen Torrence (USA)||Merlene Ottey (JAM)||Irina Privalova (RUS)|
|1997 Athens||Marion Jones (USA)||Zhanna Pintusevich (UKR)||Savatheda Fynes (BAH)|
|1999 Seville||Marion Jones (USA)||Inger Miller (USA)||Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)|
|2001 Edmonton||Zhanna Pintusevich-Block (UKR)||Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)||Chandra Sturrup (BAH)|
|2003 Paris||Torri Edwards (USA)||Chandra Sturrup (BAH)||Ekaterini Thanou (GRE)|
|2005 Helsinki||Lauryn Williams (USA)||Veronica Campbell (JAM)||Christine Arron (FRA)|
|2007 Osaka||Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)||Lauryn Williams (USA)||Carmelita Jeter (USA)|
|2009 Berlin||Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)||Kerron Stewart (JAM)||Carmelita Jeter (USA)|
|2011 Daegu||Carmelita Jeter (USA)||Veronica Campbell-Brown (JAM)||Kelly-Ann Baptiste (TRI)|
|2013 Moscow||Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)||Murielle Ahouré (CIV)||Carmelita Jeter (USA)|
|2015 Beijing||Shelly-Ann Fraser (JAM)||Dafne Schippers (NED)||Tori Bowie (USA)|
- 100-yard dash
- National champions 100 metres (men)
- National champions 100 metres (women)
- World record progression 100 metres men
- World record progression 100 metres women
- BTEC First Sport By Bob Harris, R. Mills, S. Parker-Bennet
- The Day – 23 January 1983
- "IAAF keeps one false-start rule". BBC. 3 August 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
- "Gatlin queries false start change". BBC News. 6 May 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2008.
- Christopher Clarey (28 August 2011). "Who Can Beat Bolt in the 100? Himself". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
- "The disqualification of Usain Bolt". IAAF. 28 August 2011. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
- "Usain Bolt 100m 10 meter Splits and Speed Endurance". Speedendurance.com. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- Sandre-Tom <!-i- BOT GENERATED AUTHOR -->. "IAAF Competition Rules 2009, Rule 164" (PDF). IAAF. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
- 100 metres IAAF
- Will Swanton and David Sygall, (2007-07-15). Holy Grails. Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved on 2009-06-18. Archived 2009-06-20.
- The above source fails to mention that Namibian Frankie Fredericks was the first runner of non-West African descent to break the barrier.
- Athlete Profiles – Patrick Johnson. Athletics Australia. Retrieved 2009-06-19. Archived 2009-06-20.
- Jad, Adrian (July 2011). "Christophe Lemaitre 100m 9.92s +2.0 (Video) – Officially the Fastest White Man in History". adriansprints.com. Retrieved 2011-07-31.
- Entine, Jon (8 December 2012). "The DNA Olympics -- Jamaicans Win Sprinting 'Genetic Lottery' -- and Why We Should All Care". Forbes. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Demirel, Evin (8 August 2012). "What Made Arkansas’ Record-Setting 2012 Track Team So Unique". The Sports Seer. Retrieved 19 July 2013.
- Who Do You Think You Are – Colin Jackson. BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
- Barling, Kurt (2000-09-04). Runaway success in the sports arena is never simply a question of race. The Independent. Retrieved on 2009-06-18.
- "Progression of 100 meters world record". ESPN. Associated Press. Retrieved 28 June 2011.
- "100 Metres Results" (PDF). IAAF. 16 August 2009. Retrieved 31 May 2011.
- 100 Metres All Time. IAAF (9 March 2009). Retrieved 6 May 2009. Archived 8 May 2009.
- 100 metres records. IAAF (6 September 2011). Retrieved 9 June 2011. Archived 6 September 2011.
- 60 Metres Records. IAAF (4 April 2009). Retrieved 4 April 2009.
- "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- Zinser, Lynn (30 June 2008), "Shattering Limits on the Track, and in the Pool" The New York Times
- "100m Dash Heat 1 Results". 26 June 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- "Prefontaine Classic 2015 Complete Results" (PDF). eugene.diamondleague.com. 30 May 2015. Retrieved 27 June 2015.
- "100m Results" (PDF). IAAF. 24 August 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
- Pritchard, W. G. (July 2006). "Mathematical Models of Running". Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- Linthorne, Nick (March 2003). "Wind Assistance". Brunel University. Archived from the original on 3 September 2009. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- "Top List – 100m". IAAF. Retrieved 3 April 2014.
- Bromell Blazing! World Leading 9.77w (4.2) To Win Big 12 Championship
- Jon Mulkeen (20 June 2015). "Hill breaks world youth 100m best and American junior record with 10.98". IAAF. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- "100m Results" (PDF). results.toronto2015.org. 22 July 2015. Retrieved 26 July 2015.
- Phil Minshull (7 September 2015). "Leotlela clocks second fastest ever youth 100m with 10.20 in Samoa". IAAF. Retrieved 13 September 2015.
- "Florida's Whitney sets world junior 200 record". www.newsobserver.com. 7 July 2014. Retrieved 8 July 2014.
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- Canadian Ben Johnson won the 1988 men's 100 metres final, but was stripped of the title after testing positive for steroids in a subsequent doping test.
- "1988: Johnson stripped of Olympic gold". BBC News. September 27, 1988.
- On October 5, 2007 Marion Jones of the United States admitted to having taken performance-enhancing drugs prior to the 2000 Summer Olympics. On October 9 she relinquished her medals to the United States Olympic Committee, who returned them to the International Olympic Committee. The IOC have removed the medals from Jones and her relay teammates, leaving the positions vacant.