100s BC (decade)
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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
This article concerns the period 109 BC – 100 BC.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 109 BC
- 1.2 108 BC
- 1.3 107 BC
- 1.4 106 BC
- 1.5 105 BC
- 1.6 104 BC
- 1.7 103 BC
- 1.8 102 BC
- 1.9 101 BC
- 1.10 100 BC
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 References
- Han campaigns against Dian: Emperor Wu of Han launches a new campaign against the Dian Kingdom and establishes the Yizhou commandery in Yunnan during the dynasty's expansion southward.
- A Roman army under Marcus Junius Silanus is defeated by the Cimbri and Teutones near the river Rhône.
- Roman forces under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus defeat the forces of Jugurtha of Numidia at the Battle of the Muthul, with Gaius Marius as a subordinate.
- The Korean kingdom of Wiman Joseon falls, and Chinese Emperor Wu of Han establishes the Lelang Commandery in northern Korea.
- December – The Han Dynasty Chinese under commander Zhao Ponu are victorious in the Battle of Loulan in the Tarim Basin, resulting in the submission of Dayuan and the Wusun in Central Asia.
- Gaius Marius, having enacted the Marian reforms of the Roman army, arrived in North Africa to lead the war against Jugurtha, with a young quaestor named Lucius Cornelius Sulla as a subordinate.
- October 6 – The Battle of Arausio, where the Cimbri destroy two Roman armies on the Rhône, is the most severe defeat of Roman forces since the Battle of Cannae.
- Gaius Marius, together with the consul Publius Rutilius Rufus, initiates sweeping reforms of the Roman army.
- Lucius Cornelius Sulla secures the capture of Jugurtha. His success is made possible by the treachery of Bocchus I, king of Mauretania, and this ends the Jugurthine War (which has begun in 112 BC).
- At Rome, the first official gladiator match is demonstrated by gladiators from Capua, as part of a training program for the military.
- Paper is invented.
- In Rome enacts a state of emergency, the way to Italy lays open to the Germanic invaders. Gaius Marius, the conqueror of Jugurtha, is elected consul for the second time. He celebrates his triumph over Jugurtha, who is led in the procession and thrown into the Tullianum where he dies of starvation.
- Second Servile War: Athenion starts a slave rebellion in Segesta (Sicily).
- Emperor Wu of Han maintains large armies of occupation and burdens the Chinese economy. Landowners expanding their holdings, but farmers are forced to borrow at usurious rates and paying 50 percent of their crops as rent. Homelessness and banditry has increased, and agricultural productivity has declined.
- Sima Qian starts writing his Shiji.
- Gaius Marius prepares a campaign against the Ambrones and Teutones under king Teutobod who are settled in Gaul.
- Tryphon and Athenion lead the Second Servile War in Sicily.
- Alexander Jannaeus succeeds his brother Aristobulus I as king and high priest of Judea, until 76 BC.
- Gaius Marius defeats the Scirii and Teutones at Aix-en-Provence (or Battle of Aquae Sextae).
- The Cimbri defeat the Consul Quintus Lutatius Catulus in the Adige Valley.
- The Chinese under Emperor Wu of Han besiege and capture Kokand of Dayuan in the Hellenistic Ferghana Valley, during a 2 year war with the Yuezhi.
- July 30 – Battle of Vercellae (Battle of the Raudine Plain or Battle of Campi Raudii): The Roman consuls Gaius Marius and Manius Aquillius defeat the Cimbri.
- Consuls: Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Gaius Marius (Marius's sixth consulship).
- Manius Aquillius celebrates an ovation for victories in the Second Servile War.
- Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, a tribune, passes a law to redistribute land to military veterans. The law requires that all senators swear to abide by it. Quintus Caecilus Metellus Numidicus refuses and is exiled. He goes to Rhodes to study philosophy.
- Late summer–autumn: Saturninus stands for tribune again for the following year, and is elected. His associate, the praetor Gaius Servilius Glaucia, attempts to stand for the consulship (illegally, as praetors cannot immediately become consul). A rival candidate, Gaius Memmius, is found murdered by agents of Saturninus and Glaucia, who are declared public enemies by the Senate. The Senate issues the senatus consultum ultimum, and Marius, as consul, defeats his former ally in battle in the Forum. Saturninus and his followers surrender on condition that their lives are spared, but they are stoned to death with roof tiles in the Curia Hostilia by renegade senators.
- The building of the Sanctuary of Fortuna Primigenia, Palestrina, Italy, is begun. The model of it is now kept at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale, Italy (approximate date).
- Tigranes II of Armenia is placed on Armenian throne by the Parthians in exchange for the cession of "seventy valleys". (approximate date)
- Peasants revolt under Emperor Wu of Han. The Great Wall is extended out into the Gobi Desert, and sections of the wall are detached with signalling towers.
- Gandhara and Punjab are ruled by the Indo-Greek king Demetrius III Aniketos.
- A History of China is written by Sima Qian (approximate date).
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