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The 1030s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1030, and ended on December 31, 1039.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1030
- 1.2 1031
- 1.3 1032
- 1.4 1033
- 1.5 1034
- 1.6 1035
- 1.7 1036
- 1.8 1037
- 1.9 1038
- 1.10 1039
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- Battle of Azaz: Emperor Romanos III (Argyros) decides to retaliate upon the incursions of the Muslims on the eastern frontier. He leads an Byzantine expeditionary force (20,000 men) to secure Antioch. Emir Shibl al-Dawla Nasr sues for peace, but Romanos refuses to negotiate. The Byzantine army invades Syria and encampes in Azaz (near Aleppo). There, they are encircled by the Arabs (Mirdasids) who cut off the Byzantines from food and water. Romanos orders a retreat to Antioch. As the army is exhausted from the heat and the lack of supplies, the retreat soon turns into a flight in panic – with probably 10,000 killed.
- June – Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) leads a invasion into Hungary. He plunders the lands west of the River Rába, but suffers from consequences of the scorched earth tactics used by the Hungarians. Conrad, threatened by starvation, is forced to retreat back to Germany. King Stephen I pursues his forces, which are defeated and captured by the Hungarians at Vienna.
- July 29 – Battle of Stiklestad: King Olaf II Haraldsson (St. Olaf) attempts to reconquer Norway with help from King Anund Jakob of Sweden. He is defeated by an superior Norwegian peasant and Danish army (14,000 men). Olaf is killed in the battle, he is later canonized and becomes the patron saint of Norway and Rex perpetuum Norvegiae ('the eternal king of Norway').
- The first mention is made of Tartu, Estonia, as Grand Prince Yaroslav I (the Wise) of Novgorod and Kiev defeats the Chuds, and founds a fort named Yuryev (modern-day Tartu).
- The first mention is made of Thalwil, Switzerland, which is derived from Tellewilare, and indicates the early medieval origins of Thalwil as an Alemannic farmstead.
- Henry I revolts against his father King Robert II (the Pious) in a civil war over power and property. Robert's army is defeated, and he retreats to Beaugency.
- April 30 – Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni dies after a 28-year reign. He is succeeded by his son Mas'ud I who seizes the throne of the Ghaznavid Empire, which includes much of Afghanistan, Iran and India.
- Ouyang Xiu, an Chinese historian and scholar, obtains his jinshi degree at the age of 23, by passing the imperial examinations in the country, leading him into a distinguished path as a scholar-official.
- July 20 – King Robert II (the Pious) dies at Melun after a 35-year reign. He is succeeded by his 23-year-old son, Henry I, who becomes the sole ruler of France. Henry's mother, Queen dowager Constance of Arles prefers her third son, Robert, as heir to the throne and, with the help of Count Odo II, begins a war against Henry.
- The Caliphate of Córdoba collapses after years of infighting, the caliphate fractures into a number of independent Muslim taifa (kingdoms). The last Umayyad ruler, Caliph Hisham III, tries to consolidate the caliphate, but his raising of taxes (to pay for mosques) leads to heavy opposition and he is imprisoned by his rivals.
- King Mieszko II is forced to escape Poland after an attack of Grand Prince Yaroslav I (the Wise) of Kiev, who installs Mieszko's half-brother Bezprym onto the Polish throne.
- France suffers from a famine (until 1033).
- The Byzantine general George Maniakes captures Edessa from the Arab Muslims and stabilizes the eastern frontier.
- Spring – Emperor Romanos III (Argyros) sends a Byzantine expeditionary army under General Michael Protospatharios, which includes Western auxiliaries and elite troops of Asia Minor, to reinforce the Byzantine position in Calabria (Southern Italy).
- September 6 – King Rudolph III dies without any heirs. He bequeaths his entire dominions to Emperor Conrad II (the Elder), dispatching to him the Holy Lance and ring of St. Maurice, symbols of Burgundian investiture.
- Odo II, count of Champagne, invades Burgundy and seizes most of the kingdom for himself. With the assistance of Humbert I of Savoy, Queen-dowager Ermengarde (Rudolph III's widow) flees to the safety of Zürich.
- Winter – Conrad II marches with his army into Champagne and devastes the land – forcing Odo II to sue for peace and swear to abandon Burgundy. The bishops prevent Conrad from seizing control of Burgundy.
- The first mention is made of Kursk, Russia, in the hagiography of Theodosius, who becomes a monk at the Kiev Caves Monastery (approximate date).
- October – Pope John XIX dies after a 8-year pontificate at Rome. He is succeeded by his nephew Benedict IX as the 145th pope of the Catholic Church, while (probably) still in his teens.
- February 2 – Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) holds an assembly at the Abbey of Payerne and is crowned King of Burgundy. He claims dominion over the Kingdom of Arles which is incorporated into the Holy Roman Empire.
- Treaty of Merseburg: Conrad II attends a Hoftag at Merseburg and signs an agreement with King Mieszko II. He divides Poland in three parts with Mieszko designated as supreme ruler, in exchange for Conrad's support.
- Panic spreads throughout Europe that the end of the universe may be near, on the supposed 1,000th anniversary of the crucifixion of Christ, due to some unusually harsh spring weather. The Book of Revelation predicts the end of the earth after a 1,000 year period.
- April 11 – Emperor Romanos III (Argyros) is drowned in his bath, at the urging of his wife Zoë, who marries her chamberlain, and elevates him to the throne of the Byzantine Empire, as Michael IV. Romanos is buried in the Church of St. Mary Peribleptos in Constantinople.
- Spring – Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) leads a German military expedition via the Rhone River into Burgundy, while two Italian armies led by Archbishop Aribert and Boniface III (margrave of Tuscany) head over the Alps and join with Count Humbert I at Great St. Bernard Pass.
- March – Conrad II converges his armies on Lake Lemano and defeats Count Odo II in battle at Geneva (modern Switzerland). For his assistance, Conrad grants Humbert I with the Burgundian county of Maurienne.
- May – King Mieszko II dies after a 6-year reign (probably killed as a result of a conspiracy) and is succeeded by his 17-year-old son Casimir I (the Restorer). A violent revolt spreads throughout Poland.
- Summer – Poland is broke up into regions (during the so-called Pagan Reaction). Queen Richeza, Casimir I and his sisters Ryksa and Gertruda are driven into exile in Germany.
- November 25 – King Malcolm II dies in battle at Glamis. He is succeeded by Duncan I, son of his eldest daughter, rather than Macbeth, who is possibly another grandson of his.
- In Al-Andalus, benefiting from the weakening of the Muslim central authority, the count of Portugal, Gonçalo Maia, conquers Montemor-o-Velho (approximate date).
- Franche-Comté becomes subject to the Holy Roman Empire.
- A Pisan and Genovese fleet attack Annaba on the Maghribi coast (modern Tunisia). The city is occupied for one year.
- July – The 8-year-old William I becomes duke of Normandy after his father Robert I (the Magnificent) dies on a pilgrimage at Nicaea (modern Turkey). Robert's death leads to a period of instability in Normandy as William is too young to take his father's place. The Norman nobles in the region take the opportunity to settle old feuds and to increase their private wealth.
- Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) grants the city of Koper (modern Slovenia) with town rights and some degree of self-government within the Holy Roman Empire.
- October 16 – Conrad II grants the right to hold the first Freimarkt festival in Bremen. The city increases her trade with Norway and the northern Netherlands.
- October 18 – King Sancho III of Pamplona dies and divides his dominions among his four sons, García Sánchez III, Gonzalo I, Ferdinand I and Ramiro I.
- Pisa launches a naval assault against the Saracen pirates strongholds in the Lipari Islands.
- November 12 – King Cnut (the Great) dies at Shaftesbury leaving the rule of England in dispute between his sons Harthacnut and Harold Harefoot. The earls of Northumbria and Mercia support Harold's claim while Godwin (Earl of Wessex) supports Harthacnut. Harold is elected as regent or joint ruler of England. Cnut is buried in the Old Minster in Winchester.
- Winter – Harthacnut is unable to travel to his coronation in England because his Danish kingdom is under threat of an invasion by King Magnus I of Norway and King Anund Jacob of Sweden.
- Summer – Duke Sergius IV abdicates and retires to a monastery. He is succeeded by his son John V as ruler of Naples.
- A Zirid expeditionary force invades Sicily and takes Palermo from the Normans, but fails to fully reconquer the island.
- February 5 – Edward the Confessor's younger brother Alfred Aetheling is blinded and murdered, in an apparent attempt to seize the throne of England from Harold I.
- June 13 – Caliph Ali az-Zahir dies after a 16-year reign. He is succeeded by his 6-year-old son Al-Mustansir as ruler of the Fatimid Caliphate. Vizier Ali ibn Ahmad al-Jarjara'i will guide the regency for the first few years.
- May 15 – Emperor Go-Ichijō dies at the age of 27 after a 20-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Go-Suzaku as the 69th emperor of Japan.
- Pope Benedict IX is briefly forced out of Rome, but returns with the help of Emperor Conrad II (the Elder).
- The Flower Sermon first appears in Buddhist literature.
- Spring – An revolt in northern Italy is started by Aribert, archbishop of Milan. King Henry III (the eldest son of Emperor Conrad II) travels south of the Alps to quell it.
- February – At an Imperial Diet in Pavia (assembled by Conrad II) Aribert is accused of fermenting a revolt against the Holy Roman Empire, Conrad orders his arrest.
- May – Conrad II with Pavian assistance lay siege to Milan at Porta Romana side, but the city holds out. In Rome, Pope Benedict IX deposes Aribert as archbishop.
- May 28 – Conrad II decrees the Constitutio de Feudis which protects the rights of the valvassores (knights and burghers of the cities) in Lombardia (modern Italy).
- Summer – A Byzantine expeditionary force under George Maniakes lands at Sicily and defeats the Zirids. Maniakes begins his campaign to reconquer the island.
- September 4 – Battle of Tamarón: Ferdinand I defeats and kills his brother-in-law Bermudo III. Ferdinand becomes the king of Castile and León (modern Spain).
- King Harold I seizes the throne of England from his half-brother Harthacnut. His mother, Emma of Normandy flees to Bruges in Flanders (modern Belgium).
- Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) travels to Southern Italy and holds court in Troia. He orders Pandulf IV of Capua to restore the territories of Monte Cassino. Pandulf holes himself up in the fortress of Sant'Agata de' Goti, and dispatches tribute (300 lb of gold) and his son as hostage to Troia as a token of peace. Conrad accepts his offer, but the son escapes. Conrad goes on the offensive and seizes Capua, and gives it to Guaimar IV of Salerno.
- Duke John II drives his brother Manso II and his mother Maria out of Amalfi. He has Manso blinded and exiled to the island of Sirenuse. John reconciles with Maria, and allows her to remain as co-ruler of Amalfi.
- The Banu Tujibi clan is deposed by Al-Mustain I, who starts the Huddid Dynasty, which rules over the Taifa of Zaragoza for almost a century (approximate date).
- The name of Versailles, at this time a small village, appears for the first time in a medieval charter in France.
- Duke Bretislav I of Bohemia invades Poland. He captures and destroys the cities of Gniezno and Poznań.
- August 15 – On the death of his uncle, Stephen I, Peter Orseolo becomes the second ruler of Hungary.
- June 4 – Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) dies of gout in Utrecht after a 12-year reign. He is succeeded by his 21-year-old son, Henry III (the Black), who becomes also king of Italy and Burgundy.
- Duke Casimir I (the Restorer) returns to Poland, and makes great efforts to rebuild the war-ruined country. He establishes his residence at Kraków (which becomes Poland's capital until 1596).
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