1030s

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
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The 1030s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1030, and ended on December 31, 1039.

Events[edit]

1030

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
  • Battle of Azaz: Emperor Romanos III (Argyros) decides to retaliate upon the incursions of the Muslims on the eastern frontier. He leads an Byzantine expeditionary force (20,000 men) to secure Antioch. Emir Shibl al-Dawla Nasr sues for peace, but Romanos refuses to negotiate. The Byzantine army invades Syria and encampes in Azaz (near Aleppo). There, they are encircled by the Arabs (Mirdasids) who cut off the Byzantines from food and water. Romanos orders a retreat to Antioch. As the army is exhausted from the heat and the lack of supplies, the retreat soon turns into a flight in panic – with probably 10,000 killed.[1]
Europe[edit]
  • June – Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) leads a invasion into Hungary. He plunders the lands west of the River Rába, but suffers from consequences of the scorched earth tactics used by the Hungarians. Conrad, threatened by starvation, is forced to retreat back to Germany. King Stephen I pursues his forces, which are defeated and captured by the Hungarians at Vienna.
  • July 29Battle of Stiklestad: King Olaf II Haraldsson (St. Olaf) attempts to reconquer Norway with help from King Anund Jakob of Sweden. He is defeated by an superior Norwegian peasant and Danish army (14,000 men). Olaf is killed in the battle, he is later canonized and becomes the patron saint of Norway and Rex perpetuum Norvegiae ('the eternal king of Norway').
  • The first mention is made of Tartu, Estonia, as Grand Prince Yaroslav I (the Wise) of Novgorod and Kiev defeats the Chuds, and founds a fort named Yuryev (modern-day Tartu).[2]
  • The first mention is made of Thalwil, Switzerland, which is derived from Tellewilare, and indicates the early medieval origins of Thalwil as an Alemannic farmstead.
  • Henry I revolts against his father King Robert II (the Pious) in a civil war over power and property. Robert's army is defeated, and he retreats to Beaugency.
Asia[edit]

1031[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
  • July 20 – King Robert II (the Pious) dies at Melun after a 35-year reign. He is succeeded by his 23-year-old son, Henry I, who becomes the sole ruler of France. Henry's mother, Queen dowager Constance of Arles prefers her third son, Robert, as heir to the throne and, with the help of Count Odo II, begins a war against Henry.[3]
  • The Caliphate of Córdoba collapses after years of infighting, the caliphate fractures into a number of independent Muslim taifa (kingdoms). The last Umayyad ruler, Caliph Hisham III, tries to consolidate the caliphate, but his raising of taxes (to pay for mosques) leads to heavy opposition and he is imprisoned by his rivals.[4]
  • King Mieszko II is forced to escape Poland after an attack of Grand Prince Yaroslav I (the Wise) of Kiev, who installs Mieszko's half-brother Bezprym onto the Polish throne.
  • France suffers from a famine (until 1033).[5]
Middle East[edit]

1032[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
  • September 6 – King Rudolph III dies without any heirs. He bequeaths his entire dominions to Emperor Conrad II (the Elder), dispatching to him the Holy Lance and ring of St. Maurice, symbols of Burgundian investiture.
  • Odo II, count of Champagne, invades Burgundy and seizes most of the kingdom for himself.[6] With the assistance of Humbert I of Savoy, Queen-dowager Ermengarde (Rudolph III's widow) flees to the safety of Zürich.
  • Winter – Conrad II marches with his army into Champagne and devastes the land – forcing Odo II to sue for peace and swear to abandon Burgundy. The bishops prevent Conrad from seizing control of Burgundy.
  • The first mention is made of Kursk, Russia, in the hagiography of Theodosius, who becomes a monk at the Kiev Caves Monastery (approximate date).

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1033[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]
  • Panic spreads throughout Europe that the end of the universe may be near,[8][9][10] on the supposed 1,000th anniversary of the crucifixion of Christ, due to some unusually harsh spring weather. The Book of Revelation predicts the end of the earth after a 1,000 year period.[11][12][13]

1034[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
Africa[edit]

1035[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]

1036[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Africa[edit]
China[edit]
Japan[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1037[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Asia[edit]

1038[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
Asia[edit]

1039[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
  • June 4 – Emperor Conrad II (the Elder) dies of gout in Utrecht after a 12-year reign. He is succeeded by his 21-year-old son, Henry III (the Black), who becomes also king of Italy and Burgundy.
  • Duke Casimir I (the Restorer) returns to Poland, and makes great efforts to rebuild the war-ruined country. He establishes his residence at Kraków (which becomes Poland's capital until 1596).[25]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

Significant people[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Shepard, Jonathan (2010). "Azaz, Battle near", p. 102. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology, Volume 1. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-533403-6.
  2. ^ Tvauri, Andres (2012). The Migration Period, Pre-Viking Age, and Viking Age in Estonia. pp. 33, 59, 60. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  3. ^ Jonathan Riley-Smith (2006). The New Cambridge Medieval History, Volume 4, c. 1024–c. 1198, p. 124. ISBN 978-0-521-41411-1.
  4. ^ Chejne, Anwar G. (1974). Muslim Spain: Its History and Culture, pp. 43–49. Minneapolis: The University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0816606889.
  5. ^ Moriceau, Jean-Marc (2011) L'Homme contre le loup. Une guerre de deux mille ans, Paris, Fayard.
  6. ^ C.W. Previté-Orton, The Early History of the House of Savoy, (Cambridge University Press, 1912), p. 30.
  7. ^ C.W. Previté-Orton, Early History of the House of Savoy, (Cambridge University Press, 1912), p. 32.
  8. ^ "The Apocalyptic Dossier: 967-1033". Boston University. Boston University Center for Millennial Studies.
  9. ^ Landes, Richard. "Introduction to Apocalypticism and Millennialism". Catholic Resources for Bible, Liturgy, Art, and Theology.
  10. ^ "A Brief History of the Apocalypse". www.abhota.info. Retrieved 2017-05-07.
  11. ^ Revelation Chapter 20
  12. ^ Boyett, Jason (2005). Pocket Guide to the Apocalypse: The Official Field Manual for the End of the World. Relevant Media Group. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-0-9760357-1-8.
  13. ^ Strandberg, Todd; James, Terry (2003). Are You Rapture Ready?. New York City: Dutton. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-525-94737-0.
  14. ^ Norwich, John (1991). Byzantium: the Apogee, pp. 279–80. London: Penguin. ISBN 0-670-80252-2.
  15. ^ Richard Brzezinski (1998). History of Poland: Old Poland, the Piast Dynasty, p. 18. ISBN 83-7212-019-6.
  16. ^ Black's Picturesque Tourist of Scotland, Adam and Charles Black. Published 1861, Scotland.
  17. ^ Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique: De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 50.
  18. ^ The Gesta Normannorum Ducum of William of Jumièges, Orderic Vitalis, and Robert of Torigni, Ed. & Trans. Elizabeth M.C. van Houts, Vol. I (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992), pp. 80-85.
  19. ^ Benvenuti, Gino (1985). Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. p. 42. ISBN 88-8289-529-7.
  20. ^ Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie, cœur du Maghreb classique: De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte. p. 50.
  21. ^ History of Song (1346).
  22. ^ Parker, Philip (2010). World History. Dorling Kindersley Limited. p. 430. ISBN 9781405352574.
  23. ^ Panton, James (2011). Historical Dictionary of the British Monarchy. Scarecrow Press. p. 16. ISBN 9780810874978.
  24. ^ Stalls, Clay (1995). Possessing the land: Aragon's expansion into Islam's Ebro frontier under Alfonso the Battler, 1104-1134. Brill. p. viii. ISBN 90-04-10367-8.
  25. ^ Richard Brzezinski (1995). History of Poland: Old Poland – The Piast Dynasty, p. 18. ISBN 83-7212-019-6.
  26. ^ Constable, Giles (2008). Three Treatises From Bec on the Nature of Monastic Life. University of Toronto Press. p. 28. ISBN 9781442691629.