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Photograph from close approach by EPOXI mission
Discovered byMalcolm Hartley
Discovery date15 March 1986
103P/1986 E2
Orbital characteristics
Aphelion5.89 AU (Q)
Perihelion1.06 AU (q)
Semi-major axis3.48 AU (a)
Orbital period6.48 years
Last perihelion20 April 2017[2][3]
28 October 2010[2]
Next perihelion2023-Oct-12[1]
Earth MOID0.072 AU (10,800,000 km)[5]

Comet Hartley 2, designated as 103P/Hartley by the Minor Planet Center,[6] is a small periodic comet with an orbital period of 6.48 years.[1] It was discovered by Malcolm Hartley in 1986 at the Schmidt Telescope Unit, Siding Spring Observatory, Australia.[5] Its diameter is estimated to be 1.2 to 1.6 kilometres (0.75 to 0.99 mi).[5][7]

Hartley 2 was the target of a flyby of the Deep Impact spacecraft, as part of the EPOXI mission, on 4 November 2010,[8] which was able to approach within 700 kilometers (430 mi) of Hartley 2 as part of its extended mission.[9] As of November 2010 Hartley 2 is the smallest comet which has been visited.[10] It is the fifth comet visited by spacecraft, and the second comet visited by the Deep Impact spacecraft, which first visited comet Tempel 1 on 4 July 2005.[11]

Discovery and orbit[edit]

Comet Hartley 2 is a small Jupiter-family comet having an orbital period of 6.46 years. It was discovered by Malcolm Hartley in 1986 at the Schmidt Telescope Unit, Siding Spring Observatory, Australia. It has the perihelion near the Earth's orbit at 1.05 AU from the Sun.[5]

2010 Earth approach[edit]

Comet 103P passing within 0.12AU of Earth on 20 October 2010.[5]

The comet passed within 0.12 AU (18,000,000 km; 11,000,000 mi) of Earth on 20 October 2010,[5] only eight days before coming to perihelion (closest approach to the Sun) on 28 October 2010.[5] From northern latitudes, during early November 2010, the comet was visible around midnight without interference from the Moon.[12] The comet reached an apparent magnitude of about 5 and became dimly visible by naked eye.[13]

2023 Earth approach[edit]

On 26 September 2023 the comet will pass 57,268,126 ± 144 km (35,584,764 ± 89 mi) from Earth.[5] It will then come to perihelion on 12 October 2023 and brighten to about magnitude 8.[2]

103P/Hartley Closest Earth Approach on 2023-Sep-26 05:44 UT[5]
Date & time of
closest approach
Earth distance
Sun distance
wrt Earth
wrt Sun
2023-09-26 05:28 ± <1 min 0.3828 AU (57,270,000 km; 149.0 LD) 1.088 AU (162.8 million km; 423 LD) 18.3 37.1 ± 144 km Horizons

Despite its current close passage by Earth's orbit, the comet is not yet a known source of meteor showers. However, that could change. Dust trails from the recent returns of 103P/Hartley 2 move in and out of Earth's orbit, and the 1979-dust trail is expected to hit in 2062 and 2068.[14]


Comet 103P/Hartley closeup, from EPOXI.

Observation by the Spitzer Space Telescope in August 2008 showed the comet nucleus to have a radius of 0.57 ± 0.08 kilometers (0.354 ± 0.050 mi) and a low albedo of 0.028.[9] The mass of the comet is estimated to be about 300 megatonnes (3.0×1011 kg).[9] Barring a catastrophic breakup or major splitting event, the comet should be able to survive up to another 100 apparitions (~700 years) at its current rate of mass loss.[9]

Radar observations by the Arecibo Observatory during the comet's 2010 apparition revealed that the nucleus is highly elongated and rotates over an 18-hour period. The project manager of the EPOXI mission described its shape as "a cross between a bowling pin and a pickle".[15]

In 2011 Herschel Space Observatory detected the signature of vaporized water in the comet's coma. Hartley 2 contains half as much heavy water as other comets analyzed before, with the same ratio between heavy water and regular water as found in Earth's oceans.[16][17]

For many years, it was known that few comets produced more water vapor than it should by the redirection of nucleus of water ice. The flyby of Hartley 2 showed that many of the icy grains in the coma are driven out by the outgassing of carbon dioxide. It is believed that this is the source of much of the water coming from the comet.

Observations of Hartley 2 showed the importance of carbon-monoxide ice to carbon-dioxide ice in comets. After a reexamination, it was found that the abundances of carbon-monoxide ice and carbon dioxide ice show that short-period comets formed under warmer conditions, than the longer period comets. This shows that the short-period comets formed closer to the Sun, than the long-term comets. This discovery goes well with the measurements of Heavy Water in Hartley 2.[18]

Deep Impact flyby (EPOXI mission)[edit]

Animation of Deep Impact's trajectory from 12 January 2005 to 8 August 2013
   Deep Impact 1   Tempel 1   Earth   103P/Hartley

The EPOXI mission flyby showed that the material being ejected from the comet is primarily composed of CO2 gas. Michael A'Hearn, the science team leader for the EPOXI mission, stated "Early observations of the comet show that, for the first time, we may be able to connect activity to individual features on the nucleus".[11]

A University of Maryland-led study published in the 17 June issue of the journal Science described an analysis of the mission. Key findings from the mission include: (1) the smooth, relatively inactive waist of the peanut shaped comet has probably been re-deposited; (2) Hartley 2 spins around one axis, but also tumbles around a different axis; and (3) on its larger, rougher ends, the comet's surface contains glittering, blocky objects that are about 165 feet (50 meters) high and 260 feet (79 meters) wide (as big as a 16-story building). Moreover, these objects appear to be two to three times more reflective than the surface average.

"Hartley 2 is a hyperactive little comet, spewing out more water than other comets its size", said University of Maryland Astronomer Michael A'Hearn, who is lead author on the Science paper and principal investigator for the EPOXI and Deep Impact missions. "When warmed by the Sun, dry ice [frozen carbon dioxide] deep in the comet's body turns to gas jetting off the comet and dragging water ice with it."

It is now believed that some of the dust, icy chunks, and other material coming off the ends of the comet are moving slowly enough to be captured by even the weak gravity of the comet. This material then falls back into the lowest point—the middle.[19][20]

Deep Impact flyby[edit]

103P with Double Cluster in Perseus 9 October 2010.
Comet Hartley 2 on 2 November 2010 from a distance of 2.3 million kilometers, as photographed by the Deep Impact spacecraft.

The Deep Impact spacecraft, which had previously photographed Comet Tempel 1, was reused by NASA to study Hartley 2. The initial plan was for a flyby of Comet Boethin. However, Boethin had not been observed since 1986, and its orbit could not be calculated with sufficient precision to permit a flyby, so NASA re-targeted the spacecraft toward Hartley 2 instead.[7] The spacecraft came within 435 miles (700 km) while moving at 27,500 miles per hour (44,300 km/h) on 4 November 2010.[21] The data from the flyby were transmitted back to Earth through NASA's Deep Space Network.[11]

The flyby was able to show that the comet is 2.25 kilometers (1.40 mi) long, and "peanut shaped". Some jets of material are being ejected from the dark side of the comet, rather than the sunlit side. Scientists involved in the EPOXI mission describe the comet as being unusually active, with mission scientist Don Yeomans stating that "It's hyperactive, small and feisty."[22]

NASA's scientists reported that the rays coming off the rough ends consist of hundreds of tons of fluffy ice and dust chunks – the largest particles are of golf ball to basketball-size – and they are ejected by jets of carbon dioxide.[23] The scientists also said that it was the first time that comet activity powered by sublimation of frozen carbon dioxide had been observed as the comet neared the sun; the CO2 ice within the comet must be primordial, dating from the beginnings of the solar system.[24]

Flyby of comet Hartley 2 on Nov. 4, 2010 (EPOXI mission)

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c MPC
  2. ^ a b c Yoshida, Seiichi (16 July 2006). "103P/Hartley 2". Seiichi Yoshida's Comet Catalog. Archived from the original on 25 March 2010. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
  3. ^ Syuichi Nakano (13 October 2010). "103P/Hartley 2 (NK 2000)". OAA Computing and Minor Planet Sections. Retrieved 20 February 2012.
  4. ^ "Horizons Batch for 103P/Hartley (90000950) on 2030-Apr-05" (Perihelion occurs when rdot flips from negative to positive). JPL Horizons. Retrieved 15 July 2023. (JPL#K234/9 Soln.date: 2023-Jul-06)
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 103P/Hartley 2". Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on 5 January 2023. Retrieved 12 July 2023.
  6. ^ "Periodic Comet Numbers". IAU Minor Planet Center. Archived from the original on 6 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  7. ^ a b "EPOXI Mission Status". University of Maryland. NASA. 2 December 2007. Archived from the original on 15 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  8. ^ Tune, Lee; Steigerwald, Bill; Hautaluoma, Grey; Agle, D.C. (13 December 2007). "Deep Impact Extended Mission Heads for Comet Hartley 2". University of Maryland, College Park. Archived from the original on 20 June 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2009.
  9. ^ a b c d Lisse, C. M.; Fernandez; Reach; Bauer; A'Hearn; Farnham; et al. (2009). "Spitzer Space Telescope Observations of the Nucleus of Comet 103P/Hartley 2". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 121 (883): 968–975. arXiv:0906.4733. Bibcode:2009PASP..121..968L. doi:10.1086/605546. S2CID 17318657. Retrieved 23 February 2010.
  10. ^ Beatty, Kelly (4 November 2010). "Mr. Hartley's Amazing Comet". Sky & Telescope. Sky Publishing. Archived from the original on 7 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  11. ^ a b c "UMD Leads Deep Impact Spacecraft on Successful Flyby of Comet Hartley 2" (Press release). NASA. 4 November 2010. Archived from the original on 12 December 2012. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  12. ^ "2010 Phases of the Moon". U.S. Naval Observatory. Archived from the original on 22 July 2011. Retrieved 18 October 2010.
  13. ^ "Comet 103P/Hartley observation list". COBS - Comet OBServation database. Retrieved 5 August 2023.
  14. ^ Jenniskens, Peter; Jenniskens, Petrus Matheus Marie (2006). Meteor Showers and their Parent Comets. Cambridge University Press. p. 688. ISBN 978-0-521-85349-1.
  15. ^ "Space Radar Provides a Taste of Comet Hartley 2". NASA. 28 October 2010. Archived from the original on 9 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  16. ^ "Space Observatory Links Early Oceans to Icy Comets". 7 October 2011. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
  17. ^ "Heavy and Light Just Right". NASA. Retrieved 9 October 2011.
  18. ^ Brown, Dwayne. "NASA's Deep Impact Produced Deep Results". Jet Propulsion Labartory. Retrieved 24 October 2013.
  19. ^ "Comet Hartley 2 in hyperactive class of its own: CO2 jets confirmed, new insight into composition, 'excited' rotation". Science Daily. Retrieved 4 January 2023.
  20. ^ A'Hearn et al. EPOXI at Comet Hartley 2. Science, 2011; 332 (6036): 1396–1400 doi:10.1126/science.1204054
  21. ^ Grossman, Lisa (4 November 2010). "New Super Close-Up Images From Comet Flyby". Wired. Condé Nast Digital. Archived from the original on 7 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  22. ^ Black, Simon (5 November 2010). "NASA Deep Impact probe sends images of Hartley 2 comet from space". news.com.au. News Limited. Archived from the original on 7 November 2010. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  23. ^ Chang, Kenneth (18 November 2010). "Comet Hartley 2 Is Spewing Ice, NASA Photos Show". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 November 2010.
  24. ^ "A cometary blizzard". Science News. 18 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 November 2010. Retrieved 4 January 2023.

External links[edit]

Archived 27 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine

Numbered comets
103P/Hartley Next