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The 1050s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1050, and ended on December 31, 1059.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1050
- 1.2 1051
- 1.3 1052
- 1.4 1053
- 1.5 1054
- 1.6 1055
- 1.7 1056
- 1.8 1057
- 1.9 1058
- 1.10 1059
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- Hedeby is sacked by King Harald III (Hardrada) of Norway, during the course of a conflict with Sweyn II of Denmark.
- King Anund Jacob dies after a 28-year reign. He is succeeded by his brother Emund the Old as king of Sweden.
- Aoudaghost, an important Berber trading center and rival of Koumbi Saleh, is captured by the Ghana Empire.
- King Edward the Confessor unites the dioceses of Devon and Cornwall located at Crediton. He moves the see to Exeter and gives the order to build a cathedral. Leofric becomes the first bishop of Exeter.
- The brewery of Weltenburg Abbey (modern Germany) is first mentioned, thus making it one of the oldest still operating breweries in the world (approximate date).
- Spring – William of Normandy consolidates his power in Normandy. He fights over the control of Maine (after the death of Count Hugh IV), and lays siege to the fortresses of Alençon and Domfront (Western France).
- May 19 – King Henry I of France marries Anne of Kiev at the cathedral of Reims. William of Normandy marries Matilda of Flanders, daughter of Count Baldwin V, which Henry sees as a threat to his throne.
- Summer – Drogo of Hauteville, count of Apulia and Calabria, meets Pope Leo IX in southern Italy – who is send by Emperor Henry III (the Black) to re-establish the "freedom of the Catholic Church".
- Drogo of Hauteville is forced to promise Leo IX to stop the Normans from pillaging the Lombard countryside. On his way back, Drogo is assassinated near Bovino by a Byzantine conspiracy.
- Eustace II, count of Boulogne, visites England and is receive with honour at the court by King Edward the Confessor. In Dover a fight breaks out between the Norman visitors and the locals, resulting in the deaths of several people. Edward blames the people of Dover and orders Godwin, earl of Wessex, to deal with them. Godwin refuses to obey Edward's order, and in response Edward raises an army and forces the Godwin family into exile.
- Edward the Confessor invites William of Normandy to England. It is at this point that it is thought that Edward promises the English throne to William in the event of his death.
- Heregeld is abolished by Edward the Confessor. It has been collected for many years to provide funds for defending the country from Viking raiders.
- Hilarion of Kiev (or IIarion) becomes the first non-Greek metropolitan bishop of the Eastern Orthodox Church, in Kiev.
- Summer – Godwin, earl of Wessex, sails with a large fleet up the Thames to London forcing King Edward the Confessor to reinstate him into his previous position of power.
- Battle of Jabal Haydaran: The Zirid Dynasty is defeated by the invading Bedouin tribes of the Banu Hilal.
- Byōdō-in, a Japanese Buddhist temple (located in the Kyoto Prefecture), changes its name by order of Fujiwara no Yorimichi.
- End of the Pecheneg Revolt: Emperor Constantine IX (Monomachos) makes peace with the Pechenegs. However, Pecheneg raids do not cease – they not only damage the economy by plundering – but Constantine also is forced to buy protection or peace from them by gifts, land grants, privileges and titles.
- June 18 – Battle of Civitate: Norman horsemen (3,000 men) led by Humphrey of Hauteville, count of Apulia and Calabria, rout the combined forces under Pope Leo IX in Southern Italy. The Normans destroy the allied Papal army and capture Leo – who is imprisoned (as an hostage for 8 months) in Benevento.
- December – Conrad I, duke of Bavaria, is summoned to a Christmas court at Merseburg and deposed by Emperor Henry III (the Black). He flees to King Andrew I in Hungary – and joints an coalition with the rebellious Welf III, duke of Carinthia. Henry's 4-year-old son Henry becomes the new duke of Bavaria.
- April – Harold Godwinson succeeds his father Godwin as earl of Wessex. He invites the exiled Edward the Exile, son of Edmund II, to return in the hope that he can claim the English throne from King Edward the Confessor.
- Sultan Tughril leads a large Seljuk army out of Azerbaijan into Armenia, possibly to consolidate his frontier while providing an incentive to his Turkoman allies in the form of plunder. Tughril divides his army into four columns, ordering three to veer off to the north to raid into central and northern Armenia while he takes the fourth column towards Lake Van. The Seljuk Turks capture and sack the fortress city of Artchesh after an 8-day siege.
- Battle of Mortemer: The Normans led by Duke William the Bastard defeat a French army (near Mortemer), as it is caught pillaging and plundering. King Henry I of France withdraws his main army from Normandy as a result. Guy I (or Wido), count of Ponthieu, is captured during the course of the battle.
- July 27 – Siward, earl of Northumbria, invades Scotland, to support King Malcolm III against Macbeth, who has usurp the Scottish throne from Malcolm's father, Duncan I. Macbeth is defeated at Dunsinane.
- The Almoravids retake the trading center of Aoudaghost from the Ghana Empire. Repeated Almoravid incursions, aim at seizing control of the trans-Saharan gold trade, disrupt Ghana's dominance of the trade routes.
- Lý Nhật Tôn, third king of the Lý Dynasty, begins to rule in Vietnam, and changes the country's official name to Đại Việt.
- July 4 – The SN 1054, a supernova, is first observed by the Chinese, Arabs and possibly Native Americans, near the star Zeta Tauri. For 23 days it remains bright enough to be seen in daylight. Its remnants form the Crab Nebula (NGC 1952).
- Spring – Pope Leo IX sends an legatine mission under Cardinal Humbert of Silva Candida (during the celebration of the Divine Liturgy) to Constantinople to negotiate with Patriarch Michael I (Cerularius), in response to his actions concerning the church in Constantinople.
- July 16 – Humbert of Silva Candida, representative of the newly deceased Leo IX, breaks the relations between Western and Eastern Churches through the act of placing an invalidly-issued Papal Bull of ex-communication (see East-West Schism).
- January 11 – Emperor Constantine IX (Monomachos) dies after a 12½-year reign at Constantinople. He is succeeded by Theodora (a sister of the former Empress Zoë) who is proclaimed by the imperial guard (with strong opposition from the council) as empress of the Byzantine Empire.
- King Ferdinand I (the Great) begins his campaign against al-Andalus. He conquers Seia from the Christian allies of the Muslim taifas. In a drive to consolidate his southern border in Portugal – Ferdinand re-populates the city of Zamora with some of his Cantabrian (montañeses) subjects.
- October 24 – Ælfgar, earl of Mercia, is outlawed by the witan ("meeting of wise men"). In revenge he builds a force and allies himself with the Welsh king Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. After defeating Ralph the Timid (a nephew of King Edward the Confessor), they attack Hereford and raid the church – taking everything of value leaving the building on fire. The rebels also attack Leominster.
- Edward the Confessor gives Tostig Godwinson (upon the death of Earl Siward) the important position as earl of Northumbria and the difficult mission of bringing the northern state under control.
- Winter – The Seljuk Turks led by Sultan Tughril capture Baghdad and enter the city in a Roman-styled truimph. Al-Malik al-Rahim, the last Buyid emir in Iraq, is taken prisoner.
- Construction on the Liaodi Pagoda in Hebei is completed (the tallest pagoda in Chinese history, standing at a height of 84 m (275 ft) tall).
- King Andrew I (the Catholic) establishes the Benedictine Tihany Abbey. Its foundation charter is the earliest written record extant in the Hungarian language.
- April 13 – Pope Victor II succeeds Leo IX as the 153rd pope of the Catholic Church in Rome (until 1057).
- August 31 – Empress Theodora (a sister of the former Empress Zoë) dies after a 18-month reign by a sudden illness at Constantinople. She is succeeded by Michael VI (the Old) who has served as military finance minister under the former Emperor Romanos III. Michael is appointed through the influence of Leo Paraspondylos, Theodora's most trusted adviser. This ending the Macedonian Dynasty.
- Theodosius, a nephew of the former Emperor Constantine IX, tries to usurp the Byzantine throne and liberates all the prisoners who flocks his banner. With their support he marches through the streets of Constantinople to the Palace. There, the Varangian Guard forms up outside to stop him. Theodosius losses heart and heads for Hagia Sophia. Later he is captured and exiled to Pergamum.
- October 5 – Emperor Henry III (the Black) dies after a 10-year reign at Bodfeld, a imperial hunting lodge (Königspfalz) in the Harz Mountains. He is succeeded and enthroned by his 5-year-old only son Henry IV as "king of the Germans" by Pope Victor II (a German too) at Aachen – while his mother, Empress Agnes of Poitou, becomes co-regent.
- Ottokar I, count of Steyr, becomes margrave of the Karantanian March (later known as Styria).
- June 16 – In response to the attack on Hereford Cathedral (see 1055), Leofgar the bishop of Hereford takes an army into Wales to deal with the Welsh prince Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. He along with a large number of English troops is killed in battle at Glasbury-on-Wye by the Welsh. Earl Harold Godwinson raises an army to take revenge, but comes to peaceful terms with Gruffydd.
- The Pagoda of Fogong Temple in Shanxi in northern China is built during the Liao Dynasty. Work begins on the Pizhi Pagoda of Lingyan Temple in Shandong under the opposing Song Dynasty.
- Dromtön, a Atiśa chief disciple, founds Reting Monastery in the Reting Tsangpo Valley (north of Lhasa) as the seat of Kadam lineage of Tibetan Buddhism.
- The Muslims expel 300 Christians from Jerusalem, and European Christians are forbidden to enter the Church of the Holy Sepulcher.
- June 8 – General Isaac Komnenos proclaims himself emperor in Paphlagonia (modern Turkey) and starts a civil war against Emperor Michael VI. He advances with a Byzantine expeditionary force towards Constantinople. At the same time, Michael sends against the rebels an army – western regiments and eastern ones (those from the Anatolic Theme and Charsianon) – to stop him.
- August 20 – Battle of Hades: Rebel forces under Isaac Komnenos defeat the Byzantines on the plains of Hades (near Nicaea). General Katakalon Kekaumenos routs the imperial right flank and reaches the enemy's camp. He destroys the tents and supplies – which leaves the way open to Constantinople.
- September 1 – A riot in favor of Isaac Komnenos breaks out in Constantinople. Patriarch Michael I convinces Michael VI to abdicate the throne and Isaac is crowned as emperor of the Byzantine Empire.
- August 15 – Battle of Lumphanan: King Macbeth (the Red King) is killed by Malcolm (Canmore). Macbeth is succeeded by his stepson Lulach, who is crowned (probably on September 8) as king of Scotland at Scone.
- August – Battle of Varaville: Norman forces under William (the Bastard) defeat a Franco-Angevin army at the mouth of the Dives. King Henry I on campaign in Normandy is forced to retreat his army.
- Emperor Ferdinand I (the Great) takes the cities of Lamego and Viseu (modern Portugal), from Christian lords allied to the Muslim Taifa of Silves.
- The Banu Hilal take Kairouan (modern Tunisia). The Zirid Dynasty has to re-settle to Mahdiya (approximate date).
- King Anawrahta captures Thaton, the capital of the Thaton Kingdom, strengthening Theravada Buddhism in Burma.
- July 28 – Pope Victor II dies after a 15-month pontificate at Arezzo. He is succeeded by Stephen IX as the 154th pope of the Catholic Church.
- March 17 – King Lulach (the Unfortunate) of Scotland is killed in battle at Lumphanan against his cousin and rival Malcolm III (Canmore) who becomes "king of the Scots".
- September 20 – Empress Agnes de Poitou and King Andrew I (the White) of Hungary meet to negotiate about the border zone in Burgenland (modern Austria).
- The 4-year-old Judith of Swabia, the youngest daughter of the late Emperor Henry III (the Black), is engaged to Prince Solomon of Hungary at Regensburg.
- Norman conquest of southern Italy: Norman forces under Richard Drengot besiege and capture Capua. He takes the princely title from Prince Landulf VIII.
- Bolesław II (the Generous), the eldest son of Casimir I (the Restorer), succeeds his father after his death in Poznań. He becomes duke of Poland.
- The Almoravids conquer the Berghouata, a group of Berber tribes, who have establish an independent state in modern-day Morocco.
- Spring – Pope Stephen IX pronounces on the authenticity of the relics of Mary Magdalene at Vézelay Abbey in Burgundy, making it a major centre of pilgrimage.
- March 29 – Stephen IX dies of a severe illness after a pontificate of 7-month at Florence. He is succeeded by Nicholas II who will be installed the following year.
- November 6 – Emperor Isaac I (Komnenos) deposes Michael I (Cerularius), patriarch of Constantinople, and have him exiled to Prokonnessos (until 1059).
- Ealdred, archbishop of York, becomes the first English bishop to make a pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
- November 22 – Emperor Isaac I (Komnenos) falls ill on a hunt and retires to a monastery after a 2-year reign. He abdicates the Byzantine throne and appoints Constantine X, a Paphlagonian nobleman, as his successor.
- Fall – The Magyars cross the Danube River together with several Pecheneg tribes, but where halted by Byzantine forces (approximate date).
- Peter Krešimir IV (the Great) is crowned king of Croatia and Dalmatia. His coronation is recognised by the Byzantine Empire who confirm him as the supreme ruler of the Dalmatian cites, i.e. over the Theme of Dalmatia – excluding the theme of Ragusa and the Duchy of Durazzo.
- August 23 – Robert Guiscard, count of Apulia and Calabria, signs the Treaty of Melfi with Pope Nicholas III. Nicholas recognises the Norman conquest of southern Italy and accepts the titles of Guiscard as duke of Sicily.
- Alp Arslan succeeds his father Chaghri Beg as governor of Khorasan. He crosses with a Seljuk expeditonary force the upper Halys River (Red River) and plunders the Theme of Sebasteia (modern Turkey).
- January 24 – Nicholas II succeeds Stephen IX as the 155th pope of the Catholic Church. He is installed in Rome in opposition to Antipope Benedict X – the brother of the late Pope Benedict IX (deposed in 1048).
- April 13 – Nicholas II, with the agreement of the Lateran Council, issues the papal bull In nomine Domini, making the College of Cardinals the sole voters in the papal conclave for the election of popes.
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