|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|105 BC by topic|
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Year 105 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rufus and Maximus (or, less frequently, year 649 Ab urbe condita). The denomination 105 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- October 6 – The Battle of Arausio, where the Cimbri destroy two Roman armies on the Rhône, is the most severe defeat of Roman forces since the Battle of Cannae.
- Gaius Marius, together with the consul Publius Rutilius Rufus, initiates sweeping reforms of the Roman army.
- Lucius Cornelius Sulla secures the capture of Jugurtha. His success is made possible by the treachery of Bocchus I, king of Mauretania, and this ends the Jugurthine War (which has begun in 112 BC).
- First official Gladiator Match.
- Paper is invented.
- Marcus Aurelius Scaurus, Roman politician and general, executed as a prisoner of war in the advent of the battle of Arausio