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The 1060s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1060, and ended on December 31, 1069.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1060
- 1.2 1061
- 1.3 1062
- 1.4 1063
- 1.5 1064
- 1.6 1065
- 1.7 1066
- 1.8 1067
- 1.9 1068
- 1.10 1069
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- August 4 – King Henry I (a member from the House of Capet) dies after a 29-year reign in Vitry-aux-Loges. He is succeeded by his 8-year-old son Philip I (the Amorous) as king of France. Philip is too young to rule, and his mother, Queen Anne of Kiev becomes regent. France is administered by Count Baldwin V (one of Philip's uncles) who acts as co-regent.
- Summer – Norman forces under Duke Robert Guiscard invade Apulia, and capture the cities of Taranto and Brindisi (under control of the Byzantine Empire). Guiscard prepares a Sicilian expedition against the Saracens and returns to Calabria (Southern Italy), where his brother Roger Bosso waits with siege engines.
- December 6 – Béla I (the Champion) is crowned king of Hungary after his nephew, Solomon is deprived of the crown. He is supported by Duke Bolesław II (the Generous) – who helps him (with Polish troops) to obtain the Hungarian throne.
- The compilation of the New Book of Tang is completed, under a team of scholars led by Ouyang Xiu.
- Cai Xiang, a Chinese calligrapher and official, publishes his essay Cha Lu ("The Record of Tea").
- Spring – Robert de Grandmesnil, his nephew Berengar, half-sister Judith (future wife of Roger I), and eleven monks of the Abbey of Saint-Evroul, are banished by Duke William II (the Bastard) of Normandy for violence, and travel to Southern Italy.
- Summer – Norman forces led by Duke Robert Guiscard and his brother Roger I invade Sicily. They land unseen during the night and surprise the Saracen army. Guiscard conquers Messina and marches into central Sicily.
- June 28 – Count Floris I is ambushed on a retreat from Zaltbommel and killed by German troops at Nederhemert. Most of West Frisia (later part of County of Holland) is conquered and annexed by the Holy Roman Empire.
- Sosols (a tribe in Estonia) destroy the Kievan Rus' fortification of Yuryev in Tartu, and carry out a raid on Pskov.
- July 27 – Pope Nicholas II dies after a 2-year pontificate at Florence. He is succeeded by Alexander II as the 156th pope of the Catholic Church in Rome.
- The Speyer Cathedral is consecrated in Speyer (modern Germany).
- Spring – The 11-year-old King Henry IV is abducted as a result of the Coup of Kaiserswerth, a conspiracy of German nobles led by Anno II, archbishop of Cologne. Henry's education and training is supervised by Anno, who acts as his regent and is called his magister (his "master" or "teacher"). Empress Agnes of Poitou (Henry's mother) resigns the throne, and Anno with the archbishops Siegfried I and Adalbert of Hamburg takes her place.
- Winter – Harold Godwinson leads an successful campaign against King Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. He attacks and captures Rhuddlan Castle in northern Wales, but Gruffydd manages to escape.
- The Almoravids overrun modern-day Morocco, and establish an intercontinental kingdom, stretching from Spain to Senegal.
- The Banu Khurasan, a vassal of the Hammdid Dynasty, begin to rule the north of Ifriqiya (modern Tunisia).
- Marrakech is founded by the Almoravids which becomes their capital.
- May 8 – Battle of Graus: The allied Muslim and Christian troops under King Sancho II (the Strong) and Emir Ahmad al-Muqtadir (maybe led by El Cid), defeat the Aragonese army. King Ramiro I is killed and succeeded by his son Sancho V as ruler of Aragon.
- Battle of Cerami: Duke Roger I leads a small Norman force (supported by 136 mounted knights) and defeats a much larger Saracen army (35,000 men) at Cerami (near Troina) in Sicily.
- Summer – The Pisan fleet assaults and sacks Palermo (controlled by the Saracens) – this in support of the Norman forces of Roger I.
- Duke William I (the Bastard) claims the province of Maine and betroths his son Robert to Margaret, daughter of late Count Herbert II.
- Battle of Damghan: Seljuk forces under Alp Arslan defeat his brother Qutalmish who claims the throne of late Tughril, founder of the Seljuk Empire. Qutalmish flees from the battle, but his son Suleiman is taken prisoner.
- The Pizhi Pagoda located at Lingyan Temple (Shandong province) in China is completed, standing at a height of 54 m (177 ft) tall.
- Doge Domenico I orders the construction of the present building of St Mark's Basilica at Venice (approximate date).
- Anselm, later to become archbishop of Canterbury, becomes prior at the Abbey of Bec (approximate date).
- The bishopric of Olomouc (located on the River Morava) is founded (modern Czech Republic).
- Summer – King Ferdinand I (the Great) conquers more territory in modern-day Portugal and captures Coimbra. He appoints Sisnando Davides to reorganise the economy and administer the lands encircling the city.
- European warriors go to Spain, to participate in the siege of Barbastro. This expedition is sanctioned by Pope Alexander II – and is now regarded as an early form of Crusade.
- Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex, is shipwrecked on the shores of Ponthieu (Normandy). He is captured by Count Guy I who takes him as hostage to his castle of Beaurian.
- Duke William I (the Bastard) demands the release of Harold Godwinson from Guy I (after paid a ransom). Harold must swear a oath to aid William to the throne of England.
- Kings Harald Hardrada of Norway and Sweyn II of Denmark agree to a peace agreement. Harald turns his attentions to England who believes he has a right to the throne.
- April 27 – Alp Arslan, succeeds to the throne as sultan of the Seljuk Empire. He becomes sole ruler of Persia from the river Oxus to the Tigris.
- The Seljuk Turks under Alp Arslan invade Anatolia, and capture Ani after a siege of 25-days. He sacks the city and slaughters its citizens.
- Badr al-Jamali, Fatimid governor of Syria, tries to engineer a pro-Fatimid coup in Aleppo; but the rebellion is suppressed by Musa Yabgu.
- King Bagrat IV of Georgia captures the fortress city of Samshvilde, the capital of the neighboring Tashir-Dzoraget.
- Michaelsberg Abbey at Siegburg (modern Germany) is founded by Anno II, archbishop of Cologne.
- Construction of the Piazza dei Miracoli (known as Piazza del Duomo) at Pisa in Tuscany begins.
- December 28 – Westminster Abbey is consecrated in England.
- The kingdoms of Galicia and Portugal become independent, under the rule of García.
- Sima Guang, high chancellor of the Chinese Song dynasty, heads a team of scholars in initiating the compilation of an enormous written universal history of China, known as the Zizhi Tongjian.
- Norman conquest of England:
- January 5 – Edward the Confessor of York dies. The Witenagemot proclaims Harold Godwinson King of England.
- January 6 – Harold II is crowned King of England, probably in the new Westminster Abbey.
- January (approx.) – Harold marries Ealdgyth, daughter of Earl Ælfgar, and widow of Welsh ruler Gruffydd ap Llywelyn.
- March 20 – Halley's Comet reaches perihelion. Its appearance is subsequently recorded in the Bayeux Tapestry.
- September 18 – Norwegian king Harald Hardrada lands on the beaches of Scarborough and begins his invasion of England.
- September 20 – Battle of Fulford: Norwegian king Harald Hardrada defeats the northern English earls Edwin and Morcar.
- September 25 – Battle of Stamford Bridge: Word of the Battle of Fulford reaches King Harold Godwinson, who decides to ride north to meet the invaders. Harold defeats Harald Hardrada and his brother Tostig Godwinson.
- September 27 – William the Conqueror and his army set sail from the mouth of the River Somme, beginning the Norman conquest of England.
- September 28 – Duke William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey.
- October 14 – Battle of Hastings, between King Harold II of England and Duke William of Normandy: Harold is killed by an arrow to the eye (some[who?] say he was killed by a band of Norman knights sent to assassinate him). William is victorious.
- December 25 – Duke William of Normandy is crowned King William I of England in Westminster Abbey.
- December 30 – Granada massacre: A Muslim mob storms the royal palace in Granada, crucifies Jewish vizier Joseph ibn Naghrela, and massacres most of the Jewish population of the city.
- The Republic of Genoa, jealous of the recent successes of its former allies, launches a naval assault on the Republic of Pisa.
- Magnus II Harald's son is crowned King of Norway.
- Upon the death of Stenkil, King of Sweden, two rivals named Eric battle for power in Sweden, both claiming the throne, until the next year.
- Hedeby sacked and burned by West Slavs, after which it is slowly abandoned.
- Tain becomes the first town in Scotland to be chartered as a royal burgh.
- On the death of her husband Constantine X, Eudocia Macrembolitissa becomes regent of the Byzantine Empire.
- The Seljuk Turks take Caesarea in Cappadocia.
- Construction begins on the Tower of London.
- Olav III and Magnus II become joint Kings of Norway.
- The two pretenders to the Swedish throne, Eric and Eric, are both killed during the struggle for power in Sweden. Halsten, son of king Stenkil, who died the year before, becomes the new king of the country.
- The Trencavel family takes over in Carcassonne.
- Wartburg Castle, according to legend, is built in Thuringia.
- Winchester Castle is built in Hampshire, England.
- March 3 – Battle on the Nemiga River: The three sons of Yaroslav (Iziaslav, Vsevolod, and Sviatoslav) defeat Vseslav of Polotsk.
- Minsk and Orsha are first mentioned in the chronicles.
- Shenzong of Song starts to rule.
- Namgyeong is split from Yangju, Goryeo.
- The poet Wang Anshi campaigns against corruption in China.
- January 1 – Eudokia Makrembolitissa marries the general Romanus Diogenes, who becomes Byzantine Emperor.
- March 18 – An earthquake affects the Near East, with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (Violent). The shock has a magnitude greater than 7, and leaves about 20,000 people dead.
- September – Zaynab an-Nafzawiyyah marries Abu Bakr ibn Umar, leader of the Almoravids, and becomes his queen and co-regent.
- Emperor Go-Sanjō ascends to the throne of Japan.
- William the Conqueror takes Exeter after a brief siege.
- Battle of the Alta River: The Cumans defeat the rulers of Kievan Rus.
- Kiev uprising of 1068: The city of Kiev rebels against Prince Iziaslav Yaroslavich, in the aftermath of the Kievan Rus defeat against the Cumans.
- Harrying of the North: King William of England (William the Conqueror) reacts to rebellions made by his Anglo-Saxon subjects against him. He rides through the north of England with his army and burns houses, crops, cattle and land from York to Durham, which results in the deaths of over 100,000 people, mainly from starvation and winter cold.
- William the Conqueror founds the Norman Selby Abbey.
- Al-Mu'tamid ibn Abbad succeeds his father on the throne of the Taifa of Seville.
- Emperor Shenzong of Song appoints Wang Anshi as his chief counsellor.
- Wang Anshi, chancellor of the Chinese Song dynasty, implements the New Policies, which include financial reforms, raising the salaries of officials to reduce corruption, institution of the baojia system, etc.
- Nam tiến, the southward expansion of the territory of Vietnam, begins when Ly dynasty army attacks Champa, capturing Rudravarman III.
- Magnus II of Norway dies, and Olaf III becomes sole King of Norway.
- The Seljuq Turks fail to capture Iconium, following a Byzantine counter-attack launched from Syria.
- William the Conqueror
- Harold Godwinson
- Harald Hardrada
- Edward the Confessor
- Edgar the Ætheling
- Tostig Godwinson
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- Richard Brzezinski (1998). History of Poland - The Piast Dynasty, p. 19. ISBN 83-7212-019-6.
- John Julius Norwich, The Normans in the South 1016–1130 (London: Solitaire Books, 1981), pp. 146–47.
- Mäesalu, Ain (2012). "Could Kedipiv in East-Slavonic Chronicles be Keava hill fort?" (PDF). Estonian Journal of Archaeology. 1: 199. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
- Jonathan Riley-Smith (2004). The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume IV – Part II (c. 1024–c. 1198), p. 54. ISBN 978-0-521-41411-1.
- Gilbert Meynier (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518). Paris: La Découverte; p. 55.
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- Gaufredo, Malaterra. "Chapter 33, The Battle of Cerami". De Rebus Gestis Rogerii Calabriae et Siciliae Comitis et Roberti Guiscardi Ducis fratris eius. 2.
- Benvenuti, Gino (1985). Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. p. 13. ISBN 88-8289-529-7.
- Izz al-Din ibn al'Athir, The Annals of the Saljuq Turks, transl. D.S. Richards, (Routledge, 2002), p. 151.
- McGrank, Lawrence (1981). "Norman crusaders and the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and te principality of Tarragona 1129-55". Journal of Medieval History. 7 (1): 67–82. doi:10.1016/0304-4181(81)90036-1.
- Baynes, T.S. (2008). Anni, Encyclopædia Britannica (9th ed.). New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, p. 72.
- David Nicolle (2013). Osprey: Manzikert 1071: The breaking of Byzantium, p. 20. ISBN 978-1-78096-503-1.
- Anales de Tlatelolco, Rafael Tena INAH–CONACULTA 2004, p. 55.
- "The consecration of Westminster Abbey | History Today". www.historytoday.com. Retrieved 2018-01-31.
- Benvenuti, Gino (1985). Le Repubbliche Marinare. Amalfi, Pisa, Genova e Venezia. Rome: Newton & Compton Editori. p. 44. ISBN 88-8289-529-7.
- Nguyen The Anh (1989). "Le Nam tien dans les textes Vietnamiens". In Lafont, P. B. Les frontieres du Vietnam. Paris: Edition l’Harmattan.