1070s

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The 1070s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1070, and ended on December 31, 1079.

Events[edit]

1070

1071[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
  • August 26Battle of Manzikert: The Byzantine army (35,000 man) under Emperor Romanos IV meets the Seljuk Turk forces of Sultan Alp Arslan near the town of Manzikert. Although the armies are initially evenly matched, as the Byzantines advance the Seljuk Turks withdraw before them, launching hit-and-run attacks on the Byzantine flanks. While attempt to withdraw the Byzantine army falls apart, either through treachery of confusion – the battle ends in a decisive defeat for the Byzantine Empire. Romanos is captured (later released by Alp Arslan within a week) and much of the elite Varangian Guard is destroyed.
  • October 24 – Romanos IV is deposed by Caesar John Doukas and his political advisor Michael Psellos (after his return in Constantinople). Michael VII (Doukas) is crowned co-emperor – and his mother Eudokia is forced to retire to a monastery.
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
  • The English rebels under Hereward (the Wake) and Morcar, Saxon former earl of Northumbria, are forced to retreat to their stronghold on the Isle of Ely. They make a desperate stand against the Norman forces led by King William I (the Conqueror), but are defeated.
  • Edwin, earl of Mercia, rebels against William I, but is betrayed and killed. His castle and lands at Dudley (located in the West Midlands) are given to William's Norman subjects.
Africa[edit]

1072[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Seljuk Empire[edit]
China[edit]
  • Shen Kuo, Chinese polymathic scientist and statesman, is appointed as the head official for the Bureau of Astronomy – where he begins his work with the colleague Wei Pu on accurately plotting the orbital paths of the stars, planets, and moon three times a night, for a continuum of five years.
  • Fall – Shen Kuo is sent to supervise Wang Anshi's program of surveying the building of silt deposits in the Bian Canal, outside the capital city of Kaifeng. Using an original technique, Shen successfully dredges the canal and demonstrates the formidable value of the silt gathered as a fertilizer.

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]

1073[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Asia[edit]
  • Wang Anshi, Chinese chief chancellor of the Song Dynasty, creates a new bureau of the central government (called the Directorate of Weapons), which supervises the manufacture of military armaments and ensures quality control.
  • June 15 – Emperor Go-Sanjō dies after a 5-year reign and is succeeded by his 19-year-old son Shirakawa as the 72nd emperor of Japan.

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1074[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
Africa[edit]
Central Asia[edit]
China[edit]
  • Emperor Shen Zong of the Song Dynasty establishes a Marine Office and a Goods Control Bureau north-west of Shanghai, allowing for the loading and unloading of freight.

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1075[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Asia[edit]
  • Summer – Shen Kuo, Chinese polymath scientist and statesman, solves a border dispute with the Liao Dynasty by dredging up old diplomatic records. He refutes Emperor Dao Zong's bluffs point for point during a meeting at Mt. Yongan (near modern-day Pingquan), reestablishing the rightful borders of the Song Dynasty.
  • Vietnamese forces under General Lý Thường Kiệt defend Vietnam against an Chinese invasion.
  • The Liao Dynasty version of the Buddhist Tripiṭaka is completed (approximate date).

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]
  • February – Pope Gregory VII holds a council in the Lateran Palace at Rome. He publishes a decree against laymen investiture (an act which will later cause the Investiture Controversy).
  • April – Gregory VII publishes the Dictatus papae (a compilation of 27 statements of powers), in which he asserts papal authority over earthly as well as spiritual rulers.
  • December 8 – Gregory VII writes a letter of reprimand to Henry IV. He accuses him of breaching his word and continued support of excommunicated councilors.
  • December 25 – Gregory VII is kidnapped in the church during Christmas night in Rome and briefly imprisoned by the Roman nobleman Cencio I Frangipane.

1076[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Africa[edit]
Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]
Religion[edit]
  • Demetrius Zvonimir donates the Benedictine monastery of St. Gregory in Vrana to Gregory VII.

1077[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Seljuk Empire[edit]
Africa[edit]

By topic[edit]

Arts[edit]
Religion[edit]

1078[edit]

By place[edit]

Byzantine Empire[edit]
Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Africa[edit]
China[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1079[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Seljuk Empire[edit]

By topic[edit]

Astronomy[edit]
  • Omar Khayyam, Persian mathematician and astronomer, computes the length of the year to be exactly 365 days and 8 leap years that includes 366 days. The most accurate calculation of his time. Khayyam, in his Treatise on Demonstrations of Problems in Algebra, produces a complete classification of cubic equations and their geometric solutions (approximate date).
Religion[edit]

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Significant people[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 53–55. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  2. ^ "British History Timeline, Norman Britain, BBC". Retrieved 2007-12-23.
  3. ^ Williams, Hywel (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 112–113. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  4. ^ William of Malmesbury.
  5. ^ "The History of Canterbury Cathedral". Archived from the original on October 27, 2007. Retrieved December 23, 2007.
  6. ^ Adam of Bremen. Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum.
  7. ^ Kleinhenz, Christopher (2010). Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia. New York: Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 0-415-93930-5.
  8. ^ John Julius Norwich (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee – The Disaster, p. 357. ISBN 0-39453779-3.
  9. ^ Brian Todd Carey (2012). Road to Manzikert: Byzantine and Islamic Warfare (527–1071), p. 155. ISBN 978-1-84884-215-1.
  10. ^ Fletcher, R. A. (1987). "Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050-1150". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 5. 37: 31–47 [35]. JSTOR 3679149.
  11. ^ a b Canellas, Angel (1951). "Las Cruzadas de Aragon en el Siglo XI". Archived from the original on February 25, 2012. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
  12. ^ Brian Todd Carey (2012). Road to Manzikert: Byzantine and Islamic Warfare (527–1071), p. 155. ISBN 978-1-84884-215-1.
  13. ^ David Nicolle (2003). The First Crusade 1096–99: Conquest of the Holy Land, p. 12. ISBN 978-1-84176-515-0.
  14. ^ Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.
  15. ^ Minguez Fernández, José María (2009). Alfonso VI/Gregorio VII. Soberanía imperial frente a soberanía papal, pp. 30–33. ISSN 1575-801X.
  16. ^ "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, p. 25. Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876).
  17. ^ Claude Cahen (1968). Pre-Ottoman Turkey: a general survey of the material and spiritual culture and history c. 1070–1330. Trans. J. Jones-Williams, pp. 73–74 (New York: Taplinger).
  18. ^ Grape, Wolfgang (1994). The Bayeux tapestry: monument to a Norman triumph. Prestel. ISBN 978-3-7913-1365-8. Retrieved 2012-05-03.
  19. ^ Cowdrey, H. E. J. (1998). Pope Gregory VII, 1073–1085, p. 279. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  20. ^ John Julius Norwich (1991). Byzantium: The Apogee, p. 361. ISBN 0-394-53779-3.
  21. ^ Dehsen, Christian D. Von; Harris, Scott L. (1999). Philosophers and Religious Leaders. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 10. ISBN 9781573561525.
  22. ^ Richard Brzezinski (1998). History of Poland: The successors of Bolesław the Brave, p. 19. ISBN 83-7212-019-6.
  23. ^ "Take a stroll through a piece of old England". The Independent. Retrieved 28 July 2018.
  24. ^ Brian Todd Carey (2012). Road to Manzikert: Byzantine and Islamic Warfare (527–1071), p. 159. ISBN 978-1-84884-215-1.