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|1072 by topic|
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|Births – Deaths|
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|Establishments – Disestablishments|
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- January 10 – The Normans conquer Palermo, in Sicily.
- May 27 – The Accord of Winchester establishes the primacy of the Archbishop of Canterbury over the Archbishop of York, in the Church of England.
- June 29 – Romanos IV Diogenes, deposed ruler of the Byzantine Empire, is blinded and sent into exile at the Monastery of the Transfiguration, Kinaliada.
- William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake.
- Osbern FitzOsbern becomes Bishop of Exeter.
- Dunfermline Abbey (the later burial place of several Kings of Scots, including Robert the Bruce) is founded. The associated royal palace will be the birth place of King Charles I.
- Alfonso VI becomes king of Leon and Castile, following the assassination of his brother Sancho.
- The Song dynasty Chinese polymath scientist and statesman Shen Kuo is appointed as the head official for the Bureau of Astronomy, where he begins his groundbreaking work with the colleague Wei Pu on accurately plotting the orbital paths of the stars, planets, and moon three times a night, for a continuum of five years.
- Shen Kuo is sent to supervise Chancellor Wang Anshi's program of surveying the building of silt deposits in the Bian Canal, outside the capital city of Kaifeng. Using an original technique, Shen successfully dredges the canal and demonstrates the formidable value of the silt gathered as a fertilizer.
- Divan'ı Lügat'ı Türk, an informative book written by Kaşgarlı Mahmut about the Turks, is presented to the Caliph of the Karakhanids,
- Agnes of Germany, German princess, daughter of Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor and Bertha of Savoy (d. 1143)
- Tancred, Prince of Galilee, Norman leader of the First Crusade (d. 1112)
- February 22 or 1073 – Peter Damian, Italian saint (b. c. 1007)
- March 16 – Adalbert of Hamburg, German archbishop
- March 28 – Ordulf, Duke of Saxony (b. 1022)
- August 19 – Hawise, Duchess of Brittany (b. 1037)
- September 22 – Ouyang Xiu, Chinese statesman, historian, essayist and poet (b. 1007)
- November 13 – Adalbero III of Luxembourg (b. c. 1010)
- November 24 – King Bagrat IV of Georgia (b. 1018)
- December 15 – Alp Arslan, Turkish sultan in Persia (b. 1029)
- Stigand, Archbishop of Canterbury