1076 Viola

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1076 Viola
Discovery [1]
Discovered byK. Reinmuth
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date5 October 1926
MPC designation(1076) Viola
Pronunciation/vˈlə/ vy-OH-lə
/ˈv.ələ/ VY-ə-lə
Named after
Viola (flowering plant)[2]
1926 TE
main-belt · (inner)
Nysa[3] · background[4]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc90.48 yr (33,048 days)
Aphelion2.8323 AU
Perihelion2.1164 AU
2.4744 AU
3.89 yr (1,422 days)
0° 15m 11.52s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions21.412±7.130 km[5]
21.43±6.81 km[6]
22.0±2.2 km[7]
22.273±0.069 km[8]
22.298±0.117 km[9]
22.63±2.7 km[10]
23.57±7.70 km[11]
24±2 km[12]
26.39±0.61 km[13]
7.336 h[14]
Tholen = F[1]
SMASS = C[1][3]
B–V = 0.629[1]
U–B = 0.250[1]
12.21[11] · 12.30[1][3][5][6][7][8][10][12][13]

1076 Viola (/vˈlə/ vy-OH-lə or /ˈv.ələ/ VY-ə-lə), provisional designation 1926 TE, is a Nysian asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 22 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 5 October 1926, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany.[15] The asteroid was named after the flowering plant Viola.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Viola is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population when applying the Hierarchical Clustering Method to its proper orbital elements.[4] The asteroid has also been classified as a member of the Nysa family (405),[3] the largest asteroid family of the main belt, consisting of stony and carbonaceous subfamilies. The family, named after 44 Nysa, is located near the Kirkwood gap (3:1 orbital resonance with Jupiter), a depleted zone that separates the central main belt.

Viola orbits the Sun in the inner asteroid belt at a distance of 2.1–2.8 AU once every 3 years and 11 months (1,422 days; semi-major axis of 2.47 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.14 and an inclination of 3° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins at Heidelberg in January 1951, or more than 24 years after its official discovery observation.[15]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen classification, Viola is a rare F-type asteroid, while in the SMASS taxonomy, it is classified as a common, carbonaceous C-type.[1][3]

Rotation period[edit]

In the 1980s, a rotational lightcurve of Viola was obtained from photometric observations by American astronomer Richard Binzel. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 7.336 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.12 magnitude (U=3).[14] A tentative period of 14.4 hours was measured by French amateur astronomer René Roy in January 2009, but later retracted from the LCDB (U=n.a.).[3][16]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Viola measures between 21.412 and 26.39 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.032 and 0.0428.[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts the results obtained by IRAS, that is, an albedo of 0.0415 and a diameter of 22.63 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.30.[3][10]


This minor planet was named after Viola, a genus of flowering plants within the violet family. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 102).[2]

Reinmuth's flowers[edit]

Due to his many discoveries, Karl Reinmuth submitted a large list of 66 newly named asteroids in the early 1930s. The list covered his discoveries with numbers between (1009) and (1200). This list also contained a sequence of 28 asteroids, starting with 1054 Forsytia, that were all named after plants, in particular flowering plants (also see list of minor planets named after animals and plants).[17]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1076 Viola (1926 TE)" (2017-03-29 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1076) Viola". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1076) Viola. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 92. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1077. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1076) Viola". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid 1076 Viola – Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  5. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, C.; Mainzer, A. K.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; et al. (October 2017). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 154 (4): 10. arXiv:1708.09504. Bibcode:2017AJ....154..168M. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa89ec.
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Alí-Lagoa, V.; Licandro, J.; Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañ; ada-Assandri, M.; Delbo', M.; et al. (June 2016). "Differences between the Pallas collisional family and similarly sized B-type asteroids". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 591: 11. Bibcode:2016A&A...591A..14A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527660. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  9. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  10. ^ a b c d e Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  12. ^ a b c d Alí-Lagoa, V.; de León, J.; Licandro, J.; Delbó, M.; Campins, H.; Pinilla-Alonso, N.; et al. (June 2013). "Physical properties of B-type asteroids from WISE data". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 554: 16. arXiv:1303.5487. Bibcode:2013A&A...554A..71A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201220680. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  13. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 October 2019. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  14. ^ a b Binzel, R. P.; Mulholland, J. D. (December 1983). "A photoelectric lightcurve survey of small main belt asteroids". Icarus. 56 (3): 519–533. Bibcode:1983Icar...56..519B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(83)90170-7. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  15. ^ a b "1076 Viola (1926 TE)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  16. ^ Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1076) Viola". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 6 December 2017.
  17. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1054) Forsytia". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1054) Forsytia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 90. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1055. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.

External links[edit]