107th Airlift Wing
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|107th Airlift Wing|
136th Airlift Squadron - Lockheed C-130H Hercules from the Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station flies over the Niagara Falls June 24, 2009,
|Active||10 August 1942–Present|
|Branch||Air National Guard|
|Part of||New York Air National Guard|
|Garrison/HQ||Niagara Falls Joint Air Reserve Station, New York|
|Tail Code||"Niagara" Blue stripe|
|107th Airlift Wing emblem|
The 107th Airlift Wing (107 AW) is a unit of the New York Air National Guard, stationed at Niagara Falls Joint Air Reserve Station, New York. If activated to federal service, the Wing is gained by the United States Air Force Air Mobility Command.
The mission of the 107th Airlift Wing mission is to provide "Global Vigilance and Strike Capability in support of federal authorities while maintaining the highest level of readiness for state contingencies." New York Air National Guard personnel carries out the unit's mission by providing surveillance and strike support, maintenance, supply, transportation, contracting, communications, civil engineering, personnel, base services, security forces and medical functions.
Major units of the 107th Airlift Wing include:
- 107th Operations Group
- 107th Maintenance Group
- 107th Mission Support Group
- 107th Medical Group
World War II
The unit was formed at Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia, in August 1942 as the 339th Bombardment Group, a Third Air Force Operational Training Unit (OTU), equipped with A-24 Banshee dive bombers. Redesignated a fighter-bomber group in August 1943, the 339th moved to California in September 1943 as part of Desert Training Center in Mojave Desert.
After the A-24 was taken out of combat service, trained with P-39 Airacobras and became combat ready, being reassigned to VIII Fighter Command in England, April 1944. Redesignated the 339th Fighter Group, with the 503rd, 504th and 505th Fighter Squadrons, it was based at Fowlmere, England, re-equipped with P-51 Mustangs to escort heavy bombers during its first five weeks of operations. Afterwards the red-and-white nosed Mustangs flew many escort missions to cover medium and heavy bombers that struck strategic objectives, interdicted the enemy's communications, or supported operations on the ground.
The group frequently strafed airfields and other targets of opportunity while on escort missions. the 339th received a Distinguished Unit Citation for operations on 10 and 11 September 1944. On the first day, when it escorted bombers to a target in Germany and then attacked an aerodrome near Erding, the group destroyed or damaged many enemy planes despite the intense fire it encountered from anti-aircraft guns and small arms. The following day the bomber formation being escorted to Munich was attacked by enemy fighters, but members of the 339th destroyed a number of the interceptors and drove off the others and at the same time, other members of the 339th were attacking an airfield near Karlsruhe, where they encountered heavy fire but were able to destroy or damage many of the aircraft parked on the field.
The 339th provided fighter cover over the English Channel and the coast of Normandy during the invasion of France in June 1944. Strafed and dive-bombed vehicles, locomotives, marshalling yards, anti-aircraft batteries, and troops while Allied forces fought to break out of the beachhead in France. Attacked transportation targets as Allied armies drove across France after the breakthrough at Saint-Lô in July. Flew area patrols during the airborne attack on the Netherlands in September. Escorted bombers to, and flew patrols over the battle area during the German counterattack in the Ardennes (Battle of the Bulge), December 1944 – January 1945. Provided area patrols during the assault across the Rhine in March 1945.
Among all these varied activities, the outstanding feature of this group's combat record is the 235 enemy aircraft it destroyed in the air and 440 on the ground during its one year of operations.
The group returned to the United States in October and was inactivated on 18 October 1945.
New York Air National Guard
The wartime 339th Fighter Group was redesignated as the 107th Fighter Group, and was allotted to the New York Air National Guard, on 24 May 1946. It was organized at Niagara Falls Municipal Airport, New York, and was extended federal recognition on 8 December 1948 and activated by the National Guard Bureau. The 107th Fighter Group was bestowed the lineage, history, honors, and colors of the 339th Fighter Group and all predecessor units. It was assigned to the NY Air National Guard 52d Fighter Wing.
The Group was assigned the following squadrons
- 136th Fighter Squadron, Niagara Falls
- 137th Fighter Squadron, Westchester County Airport, White Plains
- 138th Fighter Squadron, Hancock Field, Syracuse
- 139th Fighter Squadron, Schenectady County Airport
All fighter squadrons assigned to the group were equipped with F-47D Thunderbolts. Its mission was the air defense of New York State. In the postwar era, the Air National Guard was like a flying club for the many World War II veterans that filled its ranks. Parts were no problem and many of the maintenance personnel were experienced from wartime duty so readiness was quite high and the planes were often much better maintained than their USAF counterparts. A pilot could often show up at the field, check out an aircraft and go flying. However, the unit also had regular military exercises that kept up proficiency and in gunnery and bombing contests they would often score at least as well or better than active-duty USAF units, given the fact that most ANG pilots were World War II combat veterans.
In October 1950, the Air National Guard converted to the wing-base (Hobson Plan) organization. As a result, the 52d Fighter Wing was withdrawn from the Air National Guard and inactivated on 31 October 1950. The 107th Fighter Wing was activated as one of two new NY ANG Wings (the other being the 106th Bombardment Wing at Floyd Bennett Field, Brooklyn) which replaced it, both reporting directly to the New York National Guard Adjutant general in Albany.
Korean War activation
With the surprise invasion of South Korea on 25 June 1950, and the regular military's complete lack of readiness, most of the Air National Guard was federalized placed on active duty.
- The 136th Fighter Squadron was federalized on 2 March 1951, being assigned to the Maine ANG 101st Fighter-Interceptor Group, being moved to Dow Air Force Base, Maine as an air defense squadron.
- The 137th, 138th, and 139th Fighter Squadrons remained under New York State control, their air defense mission was expanded to the entire state, and were re-equipped with Very Long Range F-51H Mustangs with were capable of extended air defense flights over all of New York State.
The unit was reformed at Niagara Falls by 1 January 1953 and was re-equipped with the F-51H Mustang very long range fighter. The air defense mission for western New York remained and the unit resumed normal peacetime training and drills. In 1954, the Mustang was ending its service life and Air Defense Command was re-equipping its fighter-interceptor squadrons with jet aircraft. The 136th received F-94B Starfires, however the F-94 required a two-man aircrew a pilot and an air observer to operate its radar equipment. Trainees for the radar assignment had to attend regular Air Force Training Schools, and required virtually the same qualifications as the pilot trainees. The additional recruitment of guardsmen led to the units having a manning and capabilities problem that lasted for some time until the unit was returned to full readiness.
In 1956, the 107th Fighter-Interceptor Wing was reorganized and re-designated as the 107th Air Defense Wing. The reorganization resulted in the activation of three (3) new fighter groups, the 107th Fighter Group (AD) was moved from Niagara Falls to Hancock Field, Syracuse, although the 136th FIS remained at its station. The 109th Fighter Group (AD) was established at Schenectady County Airport, and the 105th Fighter Group (AD) at Westchester County Airport, White Plains. Under the reorganization, the group headquarters at Syracuse and the 138th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron were combined into a new 107th Fighter Group (AD), the 139th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at Schenectady was expanded to be become the 109th Fighter Group (AD), and the 137th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at White Plains was expanded to be become the 105th Fighter Group (AD). The F-86H Sabre replaced the F-94B Starfires in 1957.
Tactical Air Command
A major change to the 107th Air Defense Wing in 1958 was the transition from an Air Defense Command (ADC) mission to Tactical Air Command (TAC) and a tactical fighter mission, the 107th being re-designated as a Tactical Fighter Wing; with subordinate units also being re-designated. The new assignment involved a change in the Wing's training mission to include high-altitude interception, air-to-ground rocketry, ground strafing and tactical bombing. The squadrons retained their F-86H Sabres. In 1960 TAC replaced the F-86H with the F-100C Super Sabre.
The 137th TFS at White Plains was transferred to the 106th Aeromedical Transport Group on 1 February 1961 and was re-designated as the 137th Aeromedical Transport Squadron under the Military Air Transport Service (MATS). In 1962, the 107th TFG was moved back to Niagara Falls, with the activation of the 174th Tactical Fighter Group at Syracuse. This marked a change in status at Niagara Falls with the 107th TFW returning to Group status. Six F-100 fighters of the 136th was deployed to Hickam AFB, Hawaii in 1965 for Operation Tropic Lighting I. The squadron provided close air support for jungle warfare training of the U. S. Army's 25th Division, in Hawaii prior to their combat deployment to South Vietnam The Niagara jets were flown across the Pacific and refueled twice in flight, marking the first time an ANG unit has performed such a mission.
In January 1968, the 136th Tactical Fighter Squadron was federalized in the wake of the USS Pueblo crisis. Deployed to Homestead AFB for gunnery and close air ground support training in April; in June, the squadron was deployed to Tuy Hoa Air Base, South Vietnam to reinforce the 31st Tactical Fighter Wing. It was joined at Tuy Hoa by the New Mexico ANG 188th Tactical Fighter Squadron. In South Vietnam, the squadron carried the tail code "SG" on its F-100s. From Tuy Hoa, the squadron conducted combat operations, carried out interdiction strikes, conducted visual and photo reconnaissance, rescue combat air patrols, and suppressed enemy antiaircraft artillery. The squadron also conducted air operations against enemy forces during the 1968 Tet Offensive and the Siege of Khe Sanh from February–April 1968. It flew close air support missions during the extraction of friendly troops from Kham Duc on 12 May 1968.
In South Vietnam, three squadron members were awarded the Purple Heart; one the Distinguished Flying Cross; and 43 have received Air Medals. The New York State Medal of Valor was awarded posthumously to Captain Joseph L'Hullier of the 136th TFS for heroism in Vietnam. Captain L'Hullier became the first New York Air National Guardsman to be killed in action while on active duty with a mobilized Air Guard organizational unit since World War II. He died while on a combat fighter support mission. Following a distinguished tour of duty by all 107th Members, the squadron was returned to its home base of Niagara Falls in late May and formally demobilized on 11 June 1969. In a final, moving tribute to their four fallen comrades - three pilots of the 136th killed in training, and one in action - F-100s from the 169th Tactical Fighter Group, South Carolina Air National Guard, flew over the demobilization ceremonies in the "missing man" formation.
NORAD Air Defense
The 107th Tactical Fighter Group returned to an air defense mission in June 1971 when it received F-101B Voodoo interceptors and rejoined Aerospace Defense Command (ADCOM). In 1972, after the completion of the transition to the Voodoo from the F-100s, the 136th FIS began operating on a 24-hour-a-day, 365 days a year alert as part of the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD). In 1979, ADCOM was inactivated and the air defense mission assumed by Tactical Air Command. The 107th FIG became a part of "Air Defense, Tactical Air Command (ADTAC)", which functioned at the Numbered Air Force echelon of TAC. In 1981 the 136th was re-equipped with F-4C Phantom IIs and in 1982 returned to NORAD alert status.
More advanced F-4D Phantom IIs were received by the 136th FIS in 1986. Beginning in July, a detachment was formed to provide air defense alert at Charleston AFB, South Carolina. With the detachment at Charleston, the 136th FIS were on a 24/365 alert over a 1,480 mile round-trip area. Also interceptors from Charleston monitored Soviet Air Force Tupolev Tu-95 "Bear" Bombers flying down the Atlantic seacoast to and from airfields in Cuba. The 136th also deployed to Ramstein Air Base, West Germany to perform an Air Defense Alert Mission deemed Creek Klaxon. Squadrons from he Air National Guard rotated deployments and stood alert duties for just over a year at Ramstein whilst the resident 86th TFW converted to F-16C/D Fighting Falcons. The 86 TFW resumed alert duties on 1 April 1987.
The 107th replaced its Vietnam Era F-4D Phantom II fighter aircraft with 20 Block 15 F-16 Fighting Falcon fighters configured in the Air Defense Fighter conversion in 1990. Personnel and aircraft deployed to Jacksonville ANGB, Florida, taking advantage of the better weather conditions to accelerate the F-16 conversion.
Due to its air defense commitment, the 136th was not mobilized during the 1991 Gulf Crisis. However, the 107th Fighter-Interceptor Group deployed firefighter and medical personnel as backfilled personnel to stateside bases vacated by active-duty personnel deployed to the Middle East.
In 1992, with the end of the Cold War, the 107th adopted the Air Force Objective Organization plan, and the unit was re-designated as the 107th Fighter Group. On 1 October 1995, in accordance with the Air Force "One Base - One Wing" policy, the 107th Fighter Wing was established and the 136th Fighter Squadron was assigned to the new 107th Operations Group.
With the arrival of the KC-135R Stratotanker in March 1994, the 107th Fighter Wing converted from an air defense mission to aerial refueling and was re-designated as the 107th Air Refueling Wing. The 107th ARW provided support for worldwide air refueling missions. Secondly, when called upon, the 107th ARW used the KC-135R as a cargo and passenger transport.
In mid-1996, the Air Force, in response to budget cuts, and changing world situations, began experimenting with Air Expeditionary organizations. The Air Expeditionary Force (AEF) concept was developed that would mix Active-Duty, Reserve and Air National Guard elements into a combined force. Instead of entire permanent units deploying as "Provisional" as in the 1991 Gulf War, Expeditionary units are composed of "aviation packages" from several wings, including active-duty Air Force, the Air Force Reserve Command and the Air National Guard, would be married together to carry out the assigned deployment rotation.
Since 1996, the 136th Expeditionary Air Refueling Squadron was formed and deployed in support of world contingencies including Operations to include, but not limited to, Strong Resolve 2002, Operation Uphold Democracy, Operation Deny Flight, Operation Decisive Endeavor, Operation Noble Eagle, Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom and the Northeast Tanker Task Force.
In November 2007, the 107th was notified that it would become an airlift unit. This was directed by the Base Realignment and Closure of 2005. It became an associate unit to the Air Force Reserve Command 914th Airlift Wing that was already based at Niagara Falls. The 914th has had responsibility for the C-130H2 Hercules aircraft used by the 136th, and airmen from both units jointly operate them. With this change, the Niagara Falls Air Reserve Station received additional C-130 aircraft from the Tennessee ANG 118th Airlift Wing in Nashville. Tennessee. The 136th Expeditionary Airlift Squadron has deployed to both Iraq and Afghanistan in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.
During Hurricane Sandy in late October 2012, members of the unit deployed to New York City and Long Island to assist in recovery operations. The unit was deployed first to Stewart Air National Guard Base in Newburgh and then traveled to Peekskill, which is in Westchester County. As part of the recovery effort, unit members performed road clearing, traffic control, helping displaced personnel with feeding and getting them back in their housing and getting them out of flood-stricken areas.
It was announced in early 2012 that federal budget reductions would affect the mission of the 107th Airlift Wing. The 107th is currently transitioning to the MQ-9 Reaper unmanned aircraft mission from the C-130 mission, having flown the last C-130 flight in December 2015. The wing is planned to go operational with the MQ-9 in 2017. As a result, the association between the 107th AW and the 914th AW of the Air Force Reserves, has ended and all C-130H2 aircraft transferred into sole possession of the 914th AW.
- Constituted as 339th Bombardment Group (Dive) on 3 August 1942
- Activated on 10 August 1942
- Re-designated 339th Fighter Group in May 1944
- Inactivated on 18 October 1945
- Re-designated: 107th Fighter Group, and allotted to New York ANG, on 24 May 1946.
- Received federal recognition and activated on 8 December 1948
- Established as 107th Fighter Wing, 1 November 1950
- 107th Fighter Group assigned as subordinate unit
- Re-designated: 107th Fighter-Interceptor Wing, 1 December 1952
- Group re-designated 107th Fighter-Interceptor Group
- Re-designated: 107th Air Defense Wing, 1 May 1956
- Group re-designated: 107th Fighter Group (Air Defense)
- Re-designated: 107th Tactical Fighter Wing, 10 November 1958
- Group re-designated: 107th Tactical Fighter Group
- 107th Tactical Fighter Wing inactivated 1 July 1962, Group element remained active
- Re-designated: 107th Fighter-Interceptor Group, 1 June 1971
- Re-designated: 107th Fighter Group, 16 March 1992
- Re-designated: 107th Air Refueling Group, 1 July 1994
- 107th Air Refueling Wing re-activated, 1 October 1995
- Group re-designated: 107th Operations Group
- Re-designated: 107th Airlift Wing, 1 July 2008
- III Fighter Command, 10 August 1942
- IV Fighter Command, 1 September 1943
- 66th Fighter Wing, 4 April 1944
- Attached to: 3d Bombardment (later Air) Division 15 September 1944 – October 1945
- Gained by: Eastern Air Defense Force, Air Defense Command
- Gained by: Tactical Air Command, 10 November 1958
- Gained by: 21st Air Division, Aerospace Defense Command, 1 June 1971
- Gained by: Air Defense, Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1979
- Gained by: Northeast Air Defense Sector, 1 July 1987
- Gained by: Air Mobility Command, 1 July 1994-Present
- 105th Fighter (Air Defense) (Later Tactical Fighter) Group, 1 May 1956 – 1 July 1962
- 107th Fighter (Later Fighter-Interceptor, Fighter (Air Defense), Tactical Fighter, Operations) Group, 1 May 1956 – 1 July 1962; 1 October 1995 – Present
- 109th Fighter (Air Defense) (Later Tactical Fighter) Group, 1 May 1956 – 1 July 1962
- 482d Bombardment (later 503d Fighter) Squadron (D7) 10 August 1942 – 18 October 1945
- Re-designated: 136th Fighter (later Fighter-Interceptor, Tactical Fighter, Fighter, Air Refueling, Airlift) Squadron, 8 December 1948-Present
- 483d Bombardment (later 504th Fighter) Squadron (5Q) 10 August 1942 – 18 October 1945
- Re-designated: 137th Fighter (Later Fighter-Interceptor) Squadron, 28 October 1947-1 May 1956
- 484th Bombardment (later 505th Fighter) Squadron (6N) 10 August 1942 – 18 October 1945
- Re-designated: 138th Fighter (Later Fighter-Interceptor) Squadron, 28 October 1947--1 May 1956
- 139th Fighter (Later Fighter-Interceptor) Squadron, 28 October 1947 – 1 May 1956
- Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
- Rogers, B. (2006). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. ISBN 1-85780-197-0
- Cornett, Lloyd H. and Johnson, Mildred W., A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 - 1980, Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center, Peterson AFB, CO (1980).
- New York Department of Military Affairs Adjutant General Reports, 1947-1990