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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
|108 BC by topic|
|Gregorian calendar||108 BC|
|Ab urbe condita||646|
|Ancient Egypt era||XXXIII dynasty, 216|
|- Pharaoh||Ptolemy IX Lathyros, 9|
|Ancient Greek era||168th Olympiad (victor)¹|
|Balinese saka calendar||N/A|
|Chinese calendar||壬申年 (Water Monkey)|
2589 or 2529
— to —
癸酉年 (Water Rooster)
2590 or 2530
|Coptic calendar||−391 – −390|
|Ethiopian calendar||−115 – −114|
|- Vikram Samvat||−51 – −50|
|- Shaka Samvat||N/A|
|- Kali Yuga||2993–2994|
|Iranian calendar||729 BP – 728 BP|
|Islamic calendar||751 BH – 750 BH|
|Minguo calendar||2019 before ROC|
|Seleucid era||204/205 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||435–436|
19 or −362 or −1134
— to —
20 or −361 or −1133
Year 108 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Galba and Hortensius/Scaurus (or, less frequently, year 646 Ab urbe condita) and the Third Year of Yuanfeng. The denomination 108 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years.
- Roman forces under Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus defeat the forces of Jugurtha of Numidia at the Battle of the Muthul, with Gaius Marius as a subordinate.
- The Han generals Yang Pu and Xun Zhi besiege Wangxian (Pyongyang), the capital of Gojoseon. Infighting between the generals leads Xun Zhi to arrest Yang Pu.
- Summer - After being deserted by some of his officials, king Ugeo of Gojoseon is assassinated. Cheng Yi takes over the defense of Wangxian but is killed by Han sympathizers.
- Han subjugates Gojoseon and divides it into four prefectures. Xun Zhi is executed for infighting.
- Emperor Wu of Han founds Jiuquan in the Hexi Corridor as a military outpost on the Silk Road to Central Asia. It serves to protect diplomats and merchants, and it cuts off the kings of the region from the Xiongnu. He also founds Xianlei in present-day Inner Mongolia, extending Han control further north than before.
- Lucius Sergius Catilina, Roman politician (d. 62 BC)
- Marcus Livius Drusus (the Elder), Roman consul
- Ugeo of Gojoseon, king of Wiman Joseon (Korea)
- ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. pp. 193–195. ISBN 978-1628944167.
- ^ Hung, Hing Ming (2020). The Magnificent Emperor Wu: China's Han Dynasty. p. 204. ISBN 978-1628944167.