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- King William II of England invades Normandy, and gains a foothold in it.
- Ladislaus I of Hungary occupies Slavonia.
- King Stjepan II of Croatia, the last member of the Trpimirovic Dynasty, dies peacefully without leaving an heir.
- October 17 – London Tornado of 1091: A T8/F4 tornado is recorded in St Mary-le-Bow of London, England; the storm destroys London Bridge.
- Henry, the third son of William the Conqueror, is forced to surrender his property of Cotentin in Normandy, after his two older brothers, William Rufus and Robert Curthose, make a peace agreement.
- King Malcolm III of Scotland makes an unsuccessful attempt to invade English territory, but is finally forced to pay homage to King William II of England.
- Cardiff Castle is built.
- April 29 – Battle of Levounion: The Pechenegs besiege Constantinople, but are defeated so decisively by Emperor Alexius I, that they fade into oblivion.
- February; With the taking of Noto, the Normans complete the 30-year-long conquest of Sicily from the Islamic rulers.
- The Islamic Abbadid dynasty ruling in Spain falls, when the Almoravids storm Seville. Confronted with this new threat, King al-Mutawakkil ibn al-Aftas of Badajoz obtains the support of Castile, in exchange for the Muslim positions on the Tagus River (Sintra, Santarém and Lisbon).
- Roger Guiscard takes Malta.
- Athanasius VI bar Khamoro becomes Syriac Orthodox Patriarch of Antioch.
- 18 September – Andronikos Komnenos, Byzantine prince and general (d. 1130/31)
- Matilda, Countess of Rethel, French sovereign (d. 1151)
- March 26 – Wallada bint al-Mustakfi, Andalusian poet
- June 17 – Dirk V, Count of Holland
- July 5 – Abbot William of Hirsau
- August 25 – Sisnando Davides, Mozarab Spanish military leader
- December 19 – Adelaide of Susa, margravine of Turin
- date unknown