1095 Tulipa

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1095 Tulipa
Discovery [1]
Discovered byK. Reinmuth
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date14 April 1926
MPC designation(1095) Tulipa
Named after
Tulip (flowering plant)[2]
1926 GS · 1936 FE1
1937 LQ · 1939 VG
1941 CC · 1942 JG
1942 KB · 1952 FE1
1954 SO · 1954 UG3
1955 XO · 1956 AD1
1959 RM · 1965 VB
main-belt · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc90.50 yr (33,056 days)
Aphelion3.0918 AU
Perihelion2.9581 AU
3.0250 AU
5.26 yr (1,922 days)
0° 11m 14.28s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions27.875±0.362 km[5]
28.38±0.58 km[6]
28.390±0.124 km[7]
31.52±1.7 km[8]
31.53 km (derived)[3]
2.77 h[9]
2.787±0.0004 h[10]
2.787±0.001 h[11]
2.787 h[a]
2.787153±0.000002 h[12]
2.78721±0.00003 h[13]
2.7873±0.0001 h[14]
2.7879±0.0004 h[15]
0.1229 (derived)[3]
S (assumed)[3]
B–V = 0.720 [1]
U–B = 0.370 [1]
10.138±0.002 (R)[10] · 10.40[3][7][9] · 10.42[1][6][8] · 10.47±0.25[16]

1095 Tulipa, provisional designation 1926 GS, is an Eoan asteroid from the outer regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 30 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in southwest Germany on 14 April 1926.[17] The asteroid was named after the flower Tulip (lat. Tulipa). Originally, the name was redundantly assigned to Florian asteroid 1449 Virtanen.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Tulipa is a member the Eos family (606),[4] the largest asteroid family of the outer main belt consisting of nearly 10,000 known asteroids.[18]:23 It orbits the Sun at a distance of 3.0–3.1 AU once every 5 years and 3 months (1,922 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.02 and an inclination of 10° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The asteroid was first observed at Heidelberg on the night of its official discovery. The body's observation arc begins much later with its identification as 1941 CC at Turku Observatory in February 1941, or almost 15 years after its discovery.[17]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Tulipa is an assumed stony S-type,[3] while the Eoan family's overall spectral type is that of a K-type.[18]:23

Rotation period[edit]

A large number of rotational lightcurves of Tulipa have been obtained from photometric observations since 1983 (U=3/3-/3-/2+/3/3).[9][10][11][14][15][a] Analysis of the best-rated lightcurve by Pierre Antonini, Raoul Behrend and Gino Farroni in May 2005, gave a rotation period of 2.78721 hours with a consolidated brightness variation of 0.23 magnitude (U=3).[13]


Photometric data gathered with the 60-centimeter BlueEye600 robotic observatory near the Ondřejov Observatory in the Czech Republic, were used to model a lightcurve with a concurring period of 2.787153 hours and two spin axis of (142.0°, 40.0°) and (349.0°, 56.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[12]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Tulipa measures between 27.875 and 31.52 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.1208 and 0.1544.[5][6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.1229 and a diameter of 31.53 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.40.[3]


This minor planet was named after the Tulip (lat. Tulipa), a genus of spring-blooming showy flowers of the Liliaceae (lily family). The name "Tulipa" was originally assigned to minor planet 1928 DC, discovered by Reinmuth on 24 February 1928, which turned out to be identical with 1449 Virtanen, and was consequently reassigned to 1926 GS (now 1095 Tulipa). The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 103).[2]

Reinmuth's flower[edit]

Karl Reinmuth submitted a list of 66 newly named asteroids in the early 1930s. The list covered his discoveries with numbers between (1009) and (1200). This list also contained a sequence of 28 asteroids, starting with 1054 Forsytia, that were all named after plants, in particular flowering plants (also see list of minor planets named after animals and plants).[19]


  1. ^ a b Husarik (2011) web: rotation period 2.787 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.20 mag. Quality Code of 3. Summary figures for (1095) Tulipa at the LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1095 Tulipa (1926 GS)" (2016-10-14 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1095) Tulipa". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1095) Tulipa. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 93. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1096. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1095) Tulipa". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Archived from the original on 16 August 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  5. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  8. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  9. ^ a b c Binzel, R. P. (October 1987). "A photoelectric survey of 130 asteroids". Icarus. 72 (1): 135–208. Bibcode:1987Icar...72..135B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90125-4.
  10. ^ a b c Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75.
  11. ^ a b Klinglesmith, Daniel A., III (January 2017). "Asteroid Photometry Results from Etscorn Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 44 (1): 69–72. Bibcode:2017MPBu...44...69K. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  12. ^ a b Durech, Josef; Hanus, Josef; Broz, Miroslav; Lehky, Martin; Behrend, Raoul; Antonini, Pierre; et al. (July 2017). "Shape models of asteroids based on lightcurve observations with BlueEye600 robotic observatory". Icarus. 304: 101–109. arXiv:1707.03637. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2017.07.005.
  13. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1095) Tulipa". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  14. ^ a b Benishek, Vladimir (January 2015). "Rotation Period Determinations for 1095 Tulipa, 1626 Sadeya 2132 Zhukov, and 7173 Sepkoski". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 42 (1): 75–76. Bibcode:2015MPBu...42...75B. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  15. ^ a b Benishek, Vladimir (March 2008). "CCD Photometry of Seven Asteroids at the Belgrade Astronomical Observatory". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 35 (1): 28–30. Bibcode:2008MPBu...35...28B. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  16. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007.
  17. ^ a b "1095 Tulipa (1926 GS)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
  18. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.
  19. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1054) Forsytia". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1054) Forsytia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 90. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1055. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.

External links[edit]