10th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment

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10th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own)
Coat of Arms of the Middlesex Regiment.JPG
Badge of the Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own)
Active1908–1920
Country United Kingdom
BranchFlag of the British Army.svg Territorial Force
TypeInfantry
Size1–4 Battalions
Garrison/HQRavenscourt Park
EngagementsGallipoli Campaign
Sinai and Palestine Campaign
Western Front (World War I)
Commanders
Colonel of
the Regiment
Frederick, 4th Lord Wolverton

The 10th Battalion, Middlesex Regiment, was an infantry unit of Britain's Territorial Force from 1908 to 1920. Based in Ravenscourt Park, West London, its part-time soldiers saw service at Gallipoli, in Palestine, and on the Western Front during World War I. After the war the battalion was amalgamated into a unit of the new Royal Corps of Signals.

Origin[edit]

When the former Volunteer Force was subsumed into the new Territorial Force (TF) under the Haldane Reforms in 1908,[1][2][3] the 2nd (South) Middlesex Volunteer Rifle Corps and the 4th Middlesex Volunteer Rifle Corps (The Kensington Rifles) were reorganised to form the 13th (Kensington) Battalion in the new London Regiment. This amalgamation, with its loss of traditions of their old unit, was not popular with the 2nd (South) Middlesex, and about 300 officers and men left to form the nucleus of the 10th Battalion, Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment). This was considered a new unit, and was not allowed to retain the battle honour that detachments of the 2nd (South) Middlesex had won for service in the Second Boer War.[4][5][6] However, the 2nd Middlesex's Honorary Colonel, Lord Wolverton, and Regular Army adjutant, Captain J.F.C. Fuller, continued in their positions with the 10th Middlesex and helped to set up the new unit. (Fuller later became a noted military writer and theoretician, and claimed that his post with the 10th Middlesex inspired him to study soldiering seriously.)[7][8]

The new battalion established its headquarters (HQ) with C–H Companies at Stamford Brook Lodge, Ravenscourt Park; A Company was based at St John's College, Battersea, and B Company at St Mark's College, Chelsea, in King's Road. The St Pauls School Cadet Corps transferred its affiliation from the 2nd (South) Middlesex to the new unit.[5][9][10][11] Together with the 7th, 8th and 9th Bns, the 10th Battalion formed the Middlesex Brigade of the TF's Home Counties Division.[12][13][14]

World War I[edit]

Mobilisation[edit]

When mobilisation orders arrived on 4 August 1914 about half of 10th Battalion were with the Home Counties Division at its annual training, marching from Aldershot to Salisbury Plain. The Middlesex Brigade was at Larkhill, and 10th Battalion had to lay out in the rain outside Amesbury Station before it could entrain at 05.30 on 5 August. It then returned to Ravenscourt Park and together with the men who could not attend camp it mobilised under Lieutenant-Colonel C.R. Johnson, TD, who had been its Commanding Officer (CO) since 27 July 1912. The battalion moved to its war station at Sheerness the same day, leaving an officer to enlist the 300 or so men required to bring the battalion up to its war establishment. This was quickly accomplished from the floods of volunteers coming forwards.[9][12][13][15]

On 10 August units of the Territorial Force were invited to volunteer for Overseas Service, and on 31 August, the formation of a reserve or 2nd Line unit was authorised for each 1st Line unit where 60 per cent or more of the men had volunteered. The titles of these 2nd Line units would be the same as the original, but distinguished by a '2/' prefix. The Home Service-only and under-age men, together with the recruits who were coming forward, remained at the depot to form the 2/10th Bn, which came into existence on 12 September under the command of Lt-Col Johnson and was almost at full strength by the end of October. Subsequently, 3/10th and 4/10th Battalions were formed.[12][13][16][17][18]

1/10th Battalion[edit]

Two 1st Line TF battalions of the Middlesex Regiment left in early September 1914 to relieve Regular battalions in the Gibraltar garrison, then in October the rest of the Home Counties Division was ordered to India to relieve Regular troops there. The 1/10th Middlesex embarked at Southampton on 29 October in the transport Royal George, and disembarked at Bombay on 2 December. On arrival, the Home Counties Division was split up and the battalions were distributed to stations all over India. By May 1915, the 1/10th Bn was at Fort William (Calcutta), with 'hill parties' (convalescents and leave men) at Darjeeling. For the next four years the 1/10th Bn acted as a peacetime garrison, while suffering a steady drain of its best men to officer training and other duties. For example, on 5 November 1917 the battalion supplied a draft of 100 men to the 1/9th Middlesex to bring that battalion up to full strength to take part in the Mesopotamian campaign.[12][13][19]

2/10th Battalion[edit]

The 2/10th Battalion joined the 2nd Middlesex Brigade, which was close to full strength by 22 October 1914, and the 2nd Home Counties Division began to form in the Windsor area soon afterwards. Training was hampered by lack of modern arms and equipment – only a few old .256-in Japanese Ariska rifles were available for the infantry. However, in this half-trained and -equipped state, the 2/10th Middlesex was sent on 24 April 1915[a]to join the Welsh Border Brigade in the Welsh Division, which was preparing to go overseas. The Welsh Border Brigade had sent its 1st Line battalions to reinforce Regular divisions on the Western Front and was being reconstituted at Cambridge with 2nd Line Home Counties battalions; soon afterwards it was renumbered 160th Brigade when the division became the 53rd (Welsh) Division.[13][10][18][22][23][24][25]

In May the division moved to Bedford to continue its training, and on 2 July was reported fit for service in the Mediterranean. The battalion entrained for Devonport Dockyard on 17 July and embarked on HM Transport Huntsgreen (formerly the German Norddeutscher Lloyd shipping line's Derfflinger). It disembarked in Alexandria on 1 August and moved to Port Said.[18][24][26]

Gallipoli[edit]

The 53rd (W) Division was destined as reinforcements for the Gallipoli Campaign. After sailing to Lemnos and then Imbros, the battalion landed on C Beach at Suvla Bay at about midnight on 8 August under the command of Lt-Col C.H. Pank. It began beach fatigues under shellfire before moving to the western slopes of Lala Baba at nightfall on 9 August. The landing had been chaotic, but 53rd (W) Division was ordered to attack the W Hills the following day to recover the position. The first phase of the attack, on Scimitar Hill, was to be carried out by 159th (Cheshire) Brigade, after which 158th (North Wales) Bde reinforced by 2/10th Middlesex from 160th Bde would pass through to attack the Anafarta Spur. 2/10th Middlesex set off at dawn across a salt lake to join the firing line at Chocolate Hill, with no cover and under heavy shelling, machine gun and rifle fire, and from Chocolate Hill the firing line was unable to advance to Scimitar Hill. A second attack was ordered for 16.30, but the only troops to advance were two companies of the 2/10th, who went forward about 500 yards (460 m) before discovering that they were unsupported and fell back, having lost further casualties.[18][24][26][27][28][29][30]

The companies were gathered during the night and the battalion was moved a few hundred yards to its left, where it dug in until relieved on 13 August. It then returned to the beach and fatigue duties until the end of the month, under continual shellfire during daylight hours.[26][31][32] From then on the battalion endured spells in the front line alternating with digging positions in the rear. By the end of October it was reduced by battle casualties and sickness to about half of its pre-landing strength. In November the 2/10th Middlesex was reinforced by four officers and 200 men from the 9th Bn Sherwood Foresters in 11th (Northern) Division. The battalion was evacuated to Lemnos aboard the El Kahirah on 13 December.[26]

Palestine[edit]

From Lemnos the 53rd Division was shipped to Alexandria, and began a long period of rest and recuperation guarding the Nile Valley in Egypt. When the Turkish Army attacked the Suez Canal defences in August 1916, leading to the Battle of Romani, only part of 53rd Division was actually engaged, but the 2/10th Middlesex was present and so was later awarded the battle honour for Rumani.[24][33][34]

The British opened the Sinai and Palestine Campaign in March 1917 when the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (EEF) advanced towards Gaza, with 53rd Division in the Desert Column. The 1st Battle of Gaza began at 03.30 on 26 March, when 160th Brigade started to cross Wadi Ghuzzee. Shortly afterwards, fog began to roll in from the sea, slowing the advance, but the attack began shortly after 11.45. By 13.30 the brigade had captured 'The Labyrinth', a maze of entrenched gardens, but 2/10th Middlesex's further advance was slowed up by four belts of barbed wire and at 15.30 it requested reinforcements and ammunition; two companies of 2/4th Queens (Royal West Surrey Regiment) arrived at 17.00. By 18.30 the whole position had been secured. But events had not gone so well elsewhere, and the brigade's advanced positions were still outflanked. At 19.00 the Middlesex's CO reported that unless reinforced, his position was untenable; nevertheless, he was ordered to consolidate. However 160th Bde was ordered to pull back at midnight, and by 04.30 on 27 March 2/10th Middlesex was back on its starting position behind Wadi Ghuzzee. The battalion's casualties amounted to four officers killed and five wounded, 14 other ranks (ORs) killed, 108 wounded and 22 missing.[35][36][37]

A second attempt to take Gaza began on 17 April, and the 53rd Division attacked in the second phase on 19 April. The objective for 160th Brigade was Samson Ridge, and 2/10th Bn set out at 07.15 towards the right hand Redoubt on the ridge. The attack proceeded slowly, held up by machine gun fire, the top eventually being taken at the point of the bayonet. However, the attack elsewhere failed, and the troops dug in at the end of the day. The battalion had lost 2 officers killed and 7 wounded, 35 ORs killed or died of wounds, 6 missing and 132 wounded.[38][39][40]

There followed a pause of several months while the EEF was reorganised. The 2/10th Bn's CO, Lt-Col V.L. Pearson, was promoted to command 160th Bde and was replaced by Major A.P. Hohler. The battalion participated in a number of raids, including the capture of Sugar Loaf Hill on 15 August. It was then withdrawn from the line for intensive training. On 24 October it returned to take up outpost positions before the 3rd Battle of Gaza opened on 31 October. This operation involved other formations outflanking the Gaza–Beersheba line, after which 2/10th Bn advanced its outposts on 1 and 2 November. 53rd Division was sent on 3 November to take the heights of Tel el Khuweilfe. 160th Brigade moved up a slight valley on the right, but found the enemy in strength, and holding the water supplies. The attack was renewed unsuccessfully the following day. The division kept up the pressure: on 6 November it fended off attack after attack on its advanced positions, quickly regaining them when pushed off; 2/10th Middlesex was in reserve for this action. Eventually the Turks were forced to evacuate the position after being outflanked elsewhere. 2/10th Battalion moved forwards to occupy the high ground during daylight on 13 and 14 November during the Action of El Mughar, for which it received the battle honour, though not actually engaged.[41][42][43]

By early December the EEF was working round Jerusalem with 53rd (W) Division advancing towards Bethlehem as flank guard. 2/10th Middlesex and 2/4th Queen's were ordered to capture the hills at Beit Jala on 8 December and advanced under shellfire that was so accurate that the Middlesex had to pass one road junction by rushes by small parties. But the two battalions found the objective unoccupied. Jerusalem fell the following day.[44][45] On 21 December, 160th Brigade carried out a minor operation at Ras ez Zamby near Jericho. At 05.00 2/4th Queens captured a Turkish post, and the Turks fell back to 'White Hill'. A company of 2/10th Middlesex, together with one of 2/4th Queen's, then took this position after fierce close fighting with bombs, bayonets, and clubbed rifles.[46][47] On 27 December the Turks made a strong counter-attack towards Jerusalem; although 2/4th Queen's withdrew from White Hill, its machine guns prevented the Turks from holding it in force, and 2/10th Middlesex recaptured Ras ez Zamby. Meanwhile, a detached company of 2/10th Bn successfully held the Monastery at Deir Obeid for 12 hours against a separate Turkish attack, despite two Turkish field guns being brought up to breach the walls. Shortly afterwards the Turkish attackers were dispersed by British artillery, who also silenced another artillery attack the following day.[48][49]

160th Brigade was rested for the first 10 days of January 1918, but after returning to the front east of Jerusalem it carried out a small operation to advance the line on 18 January, with two platoons of D Company, 2/10th Middlesex, assisting 2/4th Bn Royal West Kent Regiment. The EEF began a new operation on 19 February with Jericho as its objective. 2/10th Middlesex moved out at 22.00 the previous night to secure a crossing over the Wadi Asa. When the attack began at 05.30 on 19 February, C Company launched the battalion's attack towards the village of Rammun, but was held up by a group of Turks with a machine gun. Two platoons of D Company were sent up as reinforcements, and the village and high ground as taken by 08.45. The battalion then held it during the day under heavy shellfire. The following night was quiet: patrols found no sign of the enemy, and on 21February Jericho was occupied by the EEF. The 2/10th Bn then advanced its positions under cover of bad weather. It then spent the first part of March roadmaking while the EEF advanced methodically towards the River Jordan.[50][51]

During the subsequent operations in the Judaean Hills, 53rd Division was ordered to capture Tell 'Asur. This led to further heavy fighting, with half of 2/10th Bn marching by night to drive off a Turkish counter-attack at 04.55 on 10 March. 160th Brigade forced its way steadily forward over broken ground on 11 March to reach the hills beyond. On 12 March C Company assisted 2/4th West Kents in an unsuccessful attempt to take an unreconnoitred position.[52][53]

The EEF then prepared to cross the Jordan on 21 March. A platoon of 2/10th Middlesex with two machine guns was ordered to make a feint crossing at the Auja ford while 'Shea's Group' threw troops across at other points. While Shea's Group carried out its trans-Jordan raid, 2/10th Middlesex remained west of the river skirmishing against the Turkish cavalry screen on 29 and 30 March. Otherwise the battalion was engaged mainly in roadmaking. Further skirmishing occurred on 22 April, when the battalion pushed an outpost forwards to 'Round Hill', which overlooked the Jordan, on 2 May when C Company drive off an attack on 'Ide Hill', and on 22/23 May when A and B Companies carried out a night raid on 'Fife Knoll'.[54]

The summer saw the battalion alternating between holding the line and being in reserve. Lieutenant-Col Hohler left to command 160th Bde and Maj C. Jarrett assumed command. By now the EEF was suffering a manpower shortage, and on 19 August 1918 the 2/10 Bn left 160th Bde and moved back to El Qantara, Egypt, where it was broken up to provide drafts for other units.[13][10][22][24][55]

3/10th Battalion[edit]

The 3/10th Battalion was formed in May 1915 from details and surplus men from the 2/10th when that battalion was warned for overseas service. It was stationed at Ashford, then at Staines and Reigate, but real training began at Bulmer Camp, Brighton. By November 1915 it had joined 2nd Middlesex Bde (now numbered 201st (2/1st Middlesex) Brigade at Tonbridge. The 2nd Home Counties Division (now 67th (2nd Home Counties) Division) formed part of Second Army in Central Force. 67th (2nd HC) Division had the dual role of home defence and supplying drafts to units serving overseas. It was twice warned for service in Ireland and in April 1917 for service with the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) on the Western Front, but these deployments never materialised and the division spent the whole war in England. By September 1916 it was stationed with 201st Bde round Bourne Park and Barham in Kent.[13][10][22][23][56]

Few 3rd Line TF battalions saw service overseas, but in May 1917 the 3/10th Middlesex left 67th (HC) Division and embarked at Southampton for France. Landing at Le Havre on 1 June it moved to Hesdin where it joined 1st South African Brigade in 9th (Scottish) Division on 6 June. At first it was employed in the old German front line providing digging and wiring parties for the Royal Engineers (RE) constructing new defences. The companies then took turns in the front line for instruction in trench warfare, suffering a few casualties. On 23 July the battalion was attached to 4th Division in the Arras sector, and formally transferred to its 10th Bde on 2 August. The battalion carried out a few fighting patrols during the summer months[13][10][22][23][57][58][59]

Ypres[edit]

4th Division now entered the Third Ypres Offensive. After 10 days' training, the battalion moved into camp at Elverdinghe in the Ypres Salient on 29 September. That night the camp was bombed, 7 ORs being killed and 42 wounded. On 3/4 October it moved up to the front line near Langemarcke, from which it was the division was to launch its attack (part of the Battle of Broodseinde) on 4 October. 10th Brigade attacked at 06.00 from Eagle Trench, with 3/10th Middlesex supporting 2nd Bn Seaforth Highlanders. The Seaforths attacked over difficult, heavily shelled ground, behind a 'very ragged' barrage, crossed 19 Metre Hill and got about 80 yards down its forward slope. 3/10th Middlesex was about 150 yards behind, and dealt with a concrete pillbox on the left flank. By 09.30 the advance had stalled. Lying out on the open forward slope, the Seaforths and Middlesex were raked by machine gun fire. Unable to advance, the advanced companies had to withdraw in the face of German counter-attacks at 15.00. 3/10th Middlesex held its line of shell-holes, but despite holding the enemy was unable to obtain any support or ammunition. Finally at 03.15 on 5 October some ammunition arrived, enabling the remnants of the two battalions to maintain their position through the day and following night. At 00.15 on 6 October the battalion was relieved, and the survivors carried their wounded out of action. The battalion had suffered casualties of 12 officers and 365 ORs out of 30 officers and 492 ORs who had gone into action. 10th Brigade was not engaged in the subsequent attacks made by 4th Division, though 3/10th Middlesex provided some carrying parties for the RE and Machine Gun Corps during the Battle of Broodseinde and suffering further casualties.[58][60][61]

After the terrible casualties of 1917, the BEF was forced to reduce the establishment of an infantry brigade from four to three battalions. On 20 February 1918 the bulk of 3/10th Bn was drafted to reinforce other battalions. The residue combined with those of the Household Battalion to form the 11th Entrenching Bn, which carried out labour duties until the men were required as reinforcement drafts.[13][10][22][58][62][63][64]

4/10th Battalion[edit]

Like the 3/10th Bn, the 4/10 Middlesex was formed in May 1915 with the role of training drafts for the battalions serving overseas. It moved to Cambridge, and was later stationed at Purfleet in Essex. On 8 April 1916 it was redesignated 10th Reserve Bn, Middlesex Regiment, and in September was absorbed into the 7th Reserve Bn.[13][10]

Disbandment[edit]

When the TF was reformed as the Territorial Army in 1920–21, 10th Bn Middlesex Regiment was merged with the Brighton-based former Home Counties Divisional Signal Company of the Royal Engineers to form 44th (Home Counties) Divisional Signals in the new Royal Corps of Signals. The new unit was based at the 10th Middlesex's drill hall at Stamford Brook Lodge, (though the original drill hall building may have been demolished in 1921[11]) with a company at Brighton.[6][9][10][65][66]

Honorary Colonel[edit]

Frederick, 4th Lord Wolverton, who had been Honorary Colonel of the 2nd (South Middlesex) VRC since 29 August 1903, continued in that role with the 10th Bn Middlesex Regiment.[9]

Battle Honours[edit]

The 10th Battalion contributed the following Battle honours to the Middlesex Regiment:[10]

  • 2/10th Battalion: Suvla, Landing at Suvla, Scimitar Hill, Gallipoli 1915, Rumani, Egypt 1917, Gaza, El Mughar, Jerusalem, Jericho, Jordan, Tell’ Asur, Palestine 1917-1918
  • 3/10th Battalion: Ypres 1917, Polygon Wood, France and Flanders 1917-1918

Memorials[edit]

There are World War I memorial plaques to the 1/10th, 2/10th and 3/10th Battalions inside St Nicholas Church, Chiswick, where the Regimental Colours of the 10th Bn (1910–21)[67] and the King's colours presented to 2/10th and 3/10th Bns after World War I are displayed. The metal plaque to the 1/10th Bn (North Wall) lists 58 members of the battalion who died on service (though it is not clear how many of these were seconded to other units).[68][69] There are two plaques to the 2/10th Bn (South Wall): one is of stone, the other accompanying the battalion roll of honour is of wood and incorporates a small cross carved in 1917 by the soldiers from wood found on the Mount of Olives; this cross was used by their Chaplain for the rest of the war. The plaque to the 3/10th Bn (South Wall) is made of brass.

There is also a World War I memorial plaque to the 10th Bn in the Army Reserve Centre, Deansbrook Road, Edgware.[69]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Some sources suggest that the 2/10th was a composite battalion including men drawn from the 2/8th and 2/9th Bns.[20][21]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Beckett, pp. 247–53.
  2. ^ Dunlop, Chapter 14.
  3. ^ Spiers, Chapter 10.
  4. ^ Bailey & Hollier, p. 7.
  5. ^ a b Westlake, Rifle Volunteers, p. 164.
  6. ^ a b "10th Middlesex at Regiments.org". Archived from the original on 2005-12-27. Retrieved 2005-12-27.
  7. ^ Beckett, p. 202.
  8. ^ Fuller, pp. 10-21.
  9. ^ a b c d Monthly Army List, various dates.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Lineage of London units at Stepping Forward.
  11. ^ a b Drill Hall Register at Stepping Forward.
  12. ^ a b c d Becke, Pt 2a, pp. 49–54.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Middlesex Rgt at Long, Long Trail.
  14. ^ 44th (HC) Division at Long, Long Trail.
  15. ^ Wyrall, Vol I, pp. 2, 67–9.
  16. ^ Becke, Pt 2b, p. 6.
  17. ^ Wyrall, Vol I, pp. 69–72.
  18. ^ a b c d Wyrall, Vol I, pp. 183–4.
  19. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 331–2, 335, 341.
  20. ^ Aspinall-Oglander, p. 286.
  21. ^ Dudley Ward, p. 13.
  22. ^ a b c d e Becke, Pt 2b, pp. 75–82.
  23. ^ a b c 67th (2nd HC) Division at Long, Long Trail.
  24. ^ a b c d e Becke, Pt 2a, pp. 117–23.
  25. ^ 53rd (W) Division at Long, Long Trail.
  26. ^ a b c d Westlake, Gallipoli, pp. 179–80.
  27. ^ Aspinall-Oglander, pp. 297–302.
  28. ^ North, p. 174.
  29. ^ Dudley Ward, pp. 34–41.
  30. ^ Wyrall, Vol I, pp. 185–9.
  31. ^ Dudley Ward, p. 41.
  32. ^ Wyrall, Vol I, p. 189.
  33. ^ MacMunn & Falls, p. 156.
  34. ^ Wyrall, Vol I, Ch. XXVI.
  35. ^ Bullock, pp. 44–5.
  36. ^ MacMunn & Falls, pp. 279–315
  37. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 309–13.
  38. ^ Bullock, pp. 46–7.
  39. ^ MacMunn & Falls, pp. 334–49.
  40. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 313–5.
  41. ^ Bullock, pp. 75–6.
  42. ^ Falls, pp. 84–105, 125.
  43. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 315–9.
  44. ^ Falls, p. 251.
  45. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 319–20.
  46. ^ Falls, p. 277.
  47. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 321–2.
  48. ^ Falls, pp. 281–2.
  49. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 322–3.
  50. ^ Falls, p. 307.
  51. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 324–6.
  52. ^ Falls, pp. 314–321.
  53. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 326–7.
  54. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 327–9.
  55. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, p. 329.
  56. ^ Wyrall, Vol I, p. 71.
  57. ^ Becke Pt 3a, p. 5.
  58. ^ a b c Becke, Pt 1, pp. 57–63.
  59. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp 132–3.
  60. ^ Edmonds, 1917, Vol II, pp. 311, 336, 344.
  61. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 133–42.
  62. ^ Wyrall, Vol II, pp. 182–3.
  63. ^ Household Bn at Long, Long Trail.
  64. ^ Entrenching Battalions, The National Archives, Kew, file WO 95/5494.
  65. ^ Lord & Watson, pp. 152–3.
  66. ^ Nalder, p. 598.
  67. ^ Middlesex colours at Stepping Forward.
  68. ^ IWM War Memorial Register, Ref 47683.
  69. ^ a b Middlesex memorials at Stepping Forward.

References[edit]

  • Brig C.F. Aspinall-Oglander, History of the Great War: Military Operations Gallipoli, Vol II, May 1915 to the Evacuation, London: Heinemann, 1932/Imperial War Museum & Battery Press, 1992, ISBN 0-89839-175-X.
  • Sgt O.F. Bailey and Sgt H.M. Hollier, "The Kensingtons" 13th London Regiment, London: Regimental Old Comrades' Association, 1935/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2002, ISBN 1-84342-364-2.
  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 1: The Regular British Divisions, London: HM Stationery Office, 1934/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-38-X.
  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 2a: The Territorial Force Mounted Divisions and the 1st-Line Territorial Force Divisions (42–56), London: HM Stationery Office, 1935/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-39-8.
  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 2b: The 2nd-Line Territorial Force Divisions (57th–69th), with the Home-Service Divisions (71st–73rd) and 74th and 75th Divisions, London: HM Stationery Office, 1937/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-39-8.
  • Maj A.F. Becke,History of the Great War: Order of Battle of Divisions, Part 3a: New Army Divisions (9–26), London: HM Stationery Office, 1938/Uckfield: Naval & Military Press, 2007, ISBN 1-847347-41-X.
  • Ian F.W. Beckett, Riflemen Form: A Study of the Rifle Volunteer Movement 1859–1908, Aldershot: Ogilby Trusts, 1982, ISBN 0 85936 271 X.
  • David L. Bullock, Allenby's War: The Palestine-Arabian Campaigns 1916–1918, London: Blandford Press, 1988, ISBN 0-7137-1869-2.
  • Maj C.H. Dudley Ward, History of the 53rd (Welsh) Division (T.F.) 1914–1918, Cardiff: Western Mail, 1927/Uckfield: Naval & Military, 2004, ISBN 978-1-845740-50-4.
  • Col John K. Dunlop, The Development of the British Army 1899–1914, London: Methuen, 1938.
  • Brig-Gen Sir James E. Edmonds, History of the Great War: Military Operations, France and Belgium 1917, Vol II, Messines and Third Ypres (Passchendaele), London: HM Stationery Office, 1948/Uckfield: Imperial War Museum and Naval and Military Press, 2009, ISBN 978-1-845747-23-7.
  • Capt Cyril Falls, History of the Great War: Military Operations, Egypt and Palestine, Vol II, From June 1917 to the End of the War, London: HM Stationery Office, 1930/Imperial War Museum and Naval & Military Press, 2013, ISBN 1-84574951-0.
  • Maj-Gen J.F.C. Fuller, Memoirs of an Unconventional Soldier, 1936.
  • Cliff Lord & Graham Watson, Royal Corps of Signals: Unit Histories of the Corps (1920–2001) and its Antecedents, Solihull: Helion, 2003, ISBN 1-874622-92-2.
  • Lt-Gen Sir George MacMunn & Capt Cyril Falls, History of the Great War: Military Operations, Egypt and Palestine, Vol I, From the Outbreak of War with Germany to June 1917, London: HM Stationery Office, 1928/Imperial War Museum and Battery Press, 1992, ISBN 1-870423-26-7.
  • Maj-Gen R.F.H. Nalder, The Royal Corps of Signals: A History of its Antecedents and Developments (Circa 1800–1955), London: Royal Signals Institution, 1958.
  • John North, Gallipoli: The Fading Vision, London: Faber & Faber, 1936.
  • Edward M. Spiers, The Army and Society 1815–1914, London: Longmans, 1980, ISBN 0-582-48565-7.
  • Ray Westlake, Tracing the Rifle Volunteers, Barnsley: Pen and Sword, 2010, ISBN 978-1-84884-211-3.
  • Ray Westlake, British Regiments at Gallipoli, Barnsley: Leo Cooper, 1996, ISBN 0-85052-511-X.
  • Everard Wyrall, The Die-Hards in the Great War: A History of the Duke of Cambridge's Own (Middlesex Regiment), 2 Vols, London: Harrison, 1926 and 1929.

External sources[edit]