10th Division (Australia)
|Active||15 April – 27 August 1942|
|Garrison/HQ||Newcastle, New South Wales|
|Engagements||World War II|
The 10th Division was a division of the Australian Army, which served briefly during World War II. It was initially formed on 15 April 1942 from the Militia units of the Newcastle Covering Force, however, manpower shortages within the Army at that time led to it being disbanded in August that year. As the war progressed and plans were made for the invasion of the Japanese home islands—Operation Downfall—it was planned to re-raise the 10th Division using personnel drawn from the Second Australian Imperial Force. However, the war came to an end before this operation took place and as a consequence the division was never re-raised.
Formation and disbandment
Following the start of the Pacific War, the Newcastle Covering Force, a Militia formation composed of the 1st and 32nd Brigades under the command of Major General John Murray, was renamed the 10th Division on 15 April 1942 following a complete re-organisation of the higher command of the Australian Army. However, on 27 August 1942, personnel shortages caused the division to be disbanded. Australian Prime Minister John Curtin referred to this in a letter to Winston Churchill in October 1942, saying:
- The Army's minimum need for replacement of wastage is 7,000 to 8,000 a month, against an estimated monthly intake in the coming year of 1,100 (youths turning 18). This does not enable existing army formations to be maintained. Eight infantry battalions have already been disbanded and absorbed into other units. This has involved the disbandment of the 10th Division and the absorption of its units into other formations. A further decrease in the number of battalions up to a total decrease of eleven battalions is contemplated.
Plans to re-raise
Much later in the war, as Allied forces approached the Japanese home islands, planning began for a Commonwealth Corps, including an Australian Imperial Force (AIF) division, to be the re-raised 10th Division. The division was to be made up of experienced personnel from the existing divisions. The corps would have included British and Canadian divisions, and was to be part of a landing on Honshū in 1946. Regardless, the planned landing would have been dominated by US forces, and was known as Operation Coronet.
However, the introduction of nuclear weapons, and their use at Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused Japan to surrender before the invasion took place. As a result, the 10th Division was never re-raised. Instead, the decision was made to raise the 34th Brigade for occupation duties in Japan as part of the British Commonwealth Occupation Force. This formation consisted of men drawn from the three remaining AIF divisions—the 6th, 7th and 9th Divisions.
- 1st Infantry Brigade (15 April – 27 August 1942)
- 32nd Infantry Brigade (15 April – 27 August 1942)
- Major General John Murray (2 February – 21 July 1942)
- Lieutenant Colonel Kenneth Flavelle (21–23 July 1942)
- McCarthy 1959, p. 26.
- "10th Australian Infantry Division". Orders of Battle.com. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- "10th Australian Infantry Division: Subordinates". Orders of Battle.com. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- "10th Australian Infantry Division: Appointments". Orders of Battle.com. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- "62 Curtin to Churchill: Cablegram 461 1 CANBERRA, 17 October 1942". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 9 March 2010.
- Day 2003, p. 689.
- Robertson 1981, p. 196.
- Grey 2008, p. 203.
- Day, David (2003). The Politics of War: Australia at War, 1939–45: From Churchill to MacArthur. Sydney, New South Wales: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-7322-7333-1.
- Grey, Jeffrey (2008). A Military History of Australia (3rd ed.). Melbourne, Victoria: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-69791-0.
- McCarthy, Dudley (1959). South–West Pacific Area—First Year: Kokoda to Wau. Australia in the War of 1939–1945 Official History Series. Series 1 — Army. Volume V. Canberra, Australian Capital Territory: Australian War Memorial.
- Robertson, John (1981). Australia at War, 1939–1945. Melbourne, Victoria: Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-85561-046-3.