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The 1100s lasted from January 1, 1100, and ended on December 31, 1109.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1100
- 1.2 1101
- 1.3 1102
- 1.4 1103
- 1.5 1104
- 1.6 1105
- 1.7 1106
- 1.8 1107
- 1.9 1108
- 1.10 1109
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- The Ancient Pueblo Peoples culture rises (approximate date).
- Oraibi becomes and remains the first and oldest populated settlement in what today is the United States and what is now Arizona.
- The city of Cusco, Peru is founded.
- The Liao Dynasty crushes the Zubu, and takes their khan prisoner.
- Song Dynasty China's population reaches roughly 100 million.
- In the Song Dynasty capital of Kaifeng, the number of registered people within the walls is 1,050,000; the army stationed there boosts the overall populace to some 1.4 million people.
- Emperor Huizong of Song starts to rule in China.
=South West Asia=
- January – The Saljukid ruler Mahmud I is expelled from Bagdad by his brother Barkiyaruq, but Mahmud I manages to retake the city, during his spring offensive.
- May or June – Raymond de Saint-Gilles sails to Byzantium to obtain the support of the emperor Alexios, in his attempt to seize Tripoli.
- August 1 – A Genoese fleets leaves Italy, to support the Crusaders' effort to conquer the coastal cities; the ships reach Latakia on September 25.
- August – Battle of Melitene: Bohemond I of Antioch is captured by the Danishmends, leaving Tancred as regent of the Principality of Antioch for two years.
- August 20 – With the support of the Venetian fleet, the Crusaders under Tancred of Hauteville capture the coastal city of Haifa.
- December 25 – Baldwin I is crowned first King of Jerusalem at the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem, by Dagobert of Pisa, the new Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, following the death of the previous ruler, Baldwin's brother Godfrey of Bouillon, on July 18.
- After a success over the Armenians of Cilicia and the Emirate of Aleppo, Baldwin of Bourcq becomes Count of Edessa, with the support of the patriarch Dagobert of Pisa.
- Genoa, Venice and Pisa gain trading privileges from the Crusader states, in return for their service during the conquest of the coastal cities.
- August 2 – King William II of England dies in a hunting accident in the New Forest; his brother Henry I claims the throne.
- August 5 – Henry I of England is crowned King of England, at Westminster Abbey. The power of the new monarch is ill-assured, and to mollify the barons he has to grant them the Charter of Liberties, one of the first examples of a written constitution in Europe.
- August 30 – After the failure of the Council of Liubech in 1097, the Congress of Vytechev establishes peace and the feudal system in Kievan Rus; the princes come to an agreement to share the country between them, and Sviatopolk II of Kiev becomes the first Grand Prince.
- September 16 – Battle of Malagon: The Almoravid army defeats Castellan troops.
- September 23 – Archbishop of Canterbury Anselm returns from exile, at the invitation of Henry I of England.
- October 18 – Peter I of Aragon conquers Barbastro (North) from the hands of the Almoravids.
- November 11 - Henry I of England marries Matilda of Scotland, the daughter of Malcolm III of Scotland and a direct descendant of the Saxon king Edmund Ironside.
- November 18 – The Council of Poitier opens, but is soon forcibly closed by the duke of Aquitaine, William IX, as the bishops were about to excommunicate once more the king of France, Philip I.
- December 25 – Philip I of France elevates his son to the government of the realm.
- In Iceland, the Althing decides that the laws should be transferred to a written form.
- Intense urban activity in north and central Europe: Kalmar (Kungälv) and Varberg (Sweden) are chartered; The cities of Aach (southern Germany) and Nakléřov (in Bohemia (German: Nollendorf) are created, and the castle of Burgg Eppstein is built in central Germany.
- Philip I of France conquers the Vexin area, and adds the city of Bourges and the province of Berry to his estate.
- Dagobert of Pisa becomes Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem.
- At the death of antipope Clement III, supporters of the Holy Roman Emperor in Rome choose Theodoric as his successor.
- Frederick I of Schwarzburg becomes archbishop of Cologne, and begins the construction of the castle of Volmarstein.
- The Stift St. Georgen Abbey is founded near Sankt Georgen am Längsee (Austria).
- The Diocese of Faroe is founded (approx.)
- April – King Baldwin I of Jerusalem captures Arsuf and Caesarea.
- Crusade of 1101: A second wave of European crusaders attempts to cross Anatolia, to reach the Kingdom of Jerusalem. They are heavily defeated by the Seljuq troops of Kilij Arslan I at Heraclea Cybistra, and just a handful of knights manage to reach Palestine.
- June 20 – Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, lands at Portsmouth, to try to take the throne of England from his brother, Henry. In July that year, he signs the Treaty of Alton, giving up his claim to the Anglo-Norman throne, and establishing Henry I as King of England.
- June 22 – At birth, Roger II becomes count of Sicily and duke of Calabria. His mother becomes regent.
- August – The troops of the Almoravid ruler, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, besiege Valencia, which is defended by Jimena Díaz, widow of El Cid. The city holds until May 1102.
- Fall – Countess Mathilda takes Ferrara.
- November – At the death of his father, Welf I, Duke of Bavaria, Welf II, Duke of Bavaria becomes duke of Bavaria.
- The County of Berg, Germany is established.
- April 19 – Canute II of Denmark is canonized.
- At the death of antipope Theodoric, the partisans of the Holy Roman Emperor choose Albert as the new antipope.
- Fontevraud Abbey is established.
- The Crusaders capture Caesarea Maritima.
- The Crusaders defeat a large Fatimid counter-attack of the Kingdom of Jerusalem near Ascalon, and capture the city after 3 years of siege.
- Dagobert of Pisa is briefly deposed as Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem (and restored later in the year).
- Raymond IV of Toulouse begins to besiege Tripoli, and takes the nominal title of Count of Tripoli.
- Raymond IV of Toulouse is imprisoned by Tancred, regent of the Principality of Antioch.
- The Venetians establish a new trade emporium in Sidon.
- May 5 – The short-lived principality created by El Cid ends: Valencia is captured by the Almoravids under Yusuf ibn Tashfin. It is later recaptured, evacuated and burned by Alfonso VI of Castile.
- June 4 – Władysław I Herman, Duke of Poland, dies at Płock, leaving the succession to be disputed between his sons Bolesław III Wrymouth and Zbigniew.
- Following the Croatian military defeat of 1096, by the contested Pacta Conventa the Croatian nobles recognize Coloman, King of Hungary as their overlord, initiating the personal union between the two kingdoms.
- Henry I of England takes possession of Arundel Castle in the south of England, having besieged Robert of Bellême, 3rd Earl of Shrewsbury, there.
- Hohenbaden Castle is built in Baden-Baden, Germany.
- At the Council of London, the Roman Catholic Church bans sodomy and the sale of Christian slaves to non-Christian countries, and reforms the clergy.
- Henry I of England orders the tomb of Edward the Confessor opened; the body is supposedly found undecayed.
- April 27 – Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury, goes into exile after a dispute with Henry I of England.
- August 24 – Magnus III of Norway is killed in battle with the Ulaid in Ulster. Sigurd Jorsalfare, Øystein Magnusson and Olaf Magnusson succeed him as joint kings of Norway.
- Amadeus III becomes Count of Savoy.
- Bohemund I of Antioch is released from Turkish imprisonment.
- The Scandinavian city of Lund becomes a see of the Roman Catholic Church.
- Chinese architect and government minister Li Jie (1065–1110) publishes his Yingzao Fashi technical treatise on Chinese architecture, during the reign of Emperor Huizong of Song.
- The great flood of Goa leaves thousands cut off from the war-torn city of Ohpen Bheta.
- April 21 – The new basilica at Vézelay Abbey in France is dedicated.
- May 7 – Battle of Harran: Baldwin II, count of Edessa, is taken prisoner by the Seljuk Turks; Tancred becomes regent.
- September 3 – St. Cuthbert is reburied in Durham Cathedral.
- The Venice Arsenal is founded in Venice.
- Alfonso I of Aragon becomes King of Aragon and Navarre.
- Historian Guibert of Nogent becomes abbot of Notre Dame de Nogent.
- Baldwin I of Jerusalem captures Acre.
- Georgians under King David IV (The Builder) defeat 100,000 Seljuks, with only 1,500 warriors.
- Sultan Kilij Arslan I of Sultanate of Rum starts a war with the Danishmends.
- Tuğtekin, atabeg of Damascus, founds a short-lived principality in Syria (the first example of a series of Seljukid atabeg dynasties).
- The volcano Hekla erupts in Iceland.
- December 31 – Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor is deposed by his son, Henry V.
- The Almoravid emir, Yusuf ibn Tashfin, sends a maritime expedition to Palestine from Sevilla, to ward off the Crusaders and maybe to reconquer Jerusalem. The fleet of more or less seventy ships rushes into a storm in the Mediterranean, and is never seen again.
- Roger II of Sicily becomes the Count of Sicily.
- Upon the death of Inge the Elder, he is succeeded by his nephew Philip as king of Sweden.
- The consuls of Pavia are first mentioned, indicating that the city has become an independent commune.
- February 2 – The Great Comet of 1106 is first sighted.
- September 28 – Battle of Tinchebrai: Henry I of England defeats and imprisons his older brother Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy, in Devizes Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner.
- Balaguer, Spain, is captured from the Moors by the count of Urgell.
- Boleslaus III of Poland begins a war against his brother Zbigniew, for control of Poland.
- Magnus Erlendsson becomes Earl of Orkney.
- August 9 – Emperor Toba (aged 4) succeeds to the throne of Japan.
- Chinese money is printed in 3 colours, to stymie counterfeiting.
- The highly cultivated emperor of China, Emperor Huizong of Song, writes his Treatise on Tea.
- Approximate date – Fadl ibn Rabi'ah is expelled from Syria.
- January 8 – Alexander I becomes King of the Scots, on the death of his brother Edgar.
- August 11 – The Investiture Controversy in England is resolved, by the reconciliation of King Henry and Anselm, Archbishop of Canterbury and the mass consecration of bishops by Anselm at the royal Palace of Westminster: William Giffard to Winchester, Roger to Salisbury, Reynelm to Hereford, William Warelwast to Exeter and Urban to Llandaff. Roger of Salisbury is also appointed Justiciar of England this year.
- October – The army of Bohemond of Tarente lands in Dyrrachium, to try to conquer the Byzantine Empire.
- Autumn – The Norwegian king Sigurd the Crusader sails to England, on the first stage of the Norwegian Crusade to Palestine (the first European king to support the Crusaders).
- November – The Siege of Dyrrhachium by Bohemond I of Antioch begins.
- Saracen pirates raid the Benedictine monastery of Saint Honorat, on the Lérins Islands .
- The city of Florence starts expanding its control over the surrounding countryside, and takes the city of Monte Orlandi.
- The Taira and Minamoto clans join forces to rule Japan, after defeating the warrior monks of the Enryaku-ji temple near Kyoto.
- Spring – The Norwegian king Sigurd the Crusader sails from England, on the Norwegian Crusade to Palestine. He repels a Muslim fleet near the Tagus River, then attacks Sintra, Lisbon and Alcácer do Sal, and finally defeats a second Muslim fleet further south.
- May 29 – Battle of Uclés: The Almoravids decisively defeat the forces of the kingdoms of Castile and León, and roll back the advances of the Reconquista; several towns recently captured by Christians are lost to the conquering Berbers, such as Tarragona.
- July 29 – Louis VI of France starts to rule on the death of his father; on August 3 he is crowned in Orléans Cathedral.
- September – Following the failure of the Siege of Dyrrhachium, Bohemond I of Antioch becomes a vassal of the Byzantine Empire with the Treaty of Devol.
- Autumn – The Principality of Nitra ceases to exist, after Coloman, King of Hungary, deposes its last ruler, Álmos, Duke of Croatia.
- Pistoia Cathedral in Italy suffers a severe fire.
- The consuls of Bergamo are first mentioned, indicating that the city has become an independent republic.
- The Almoravid Ali ibn Yusuf organizes an auto-da-fé of the works of Al-Ghazali, in front of the Great Mosque of Cordoba.
- Fulk V becomes Count of Anjou.
- August 10 – Battle of Nakło: The Poles, led by Bolesław III Wrymouth, defeat the Pomeranians.
- August 24 – Battle of Głogów: The Poles defeat the Holy Roman Empire.
- Alfonso I of Aragon marries Urraca of Castile.
- The Almoravid army, led by Ali ibn Yusuf, fails to reconquer Toledo (lost in 1085).
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