1103 Sequoia

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1103 Sequoia
Discovery [1]
Discovered by W. Baade
Discovery site Bergedorf Obs.
Discovery date 9 November 1928
MPC designation (1103) Sequoia
Pronunciation /səˈkwɔɪ.ə/
Named after
Sequoia National Park[2]
(national park, California)
1928 VB
main-belt · (inner[1]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc 88.91 yr (32,473 days)
Aphelion 2.1169 AU
Perihelion 1.7505 AU
1.9337 AU
Eccentricity 0.0948
2.69 yr (982 days)
0° 21m 59.4s / day
Inclination 17.899°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 5.21±0.42 km[5]
6.692±0.078 km[6]
7.623±0.058 km[7]
7.816 km[8]
7.82 km (taken)[3]
3.0335±0.0003 h[9]
3.037±0.002 h[10]
3.03784±0.00001 h[9]
3.03797 h[a]
3.037976±0.00005 h[11]
3.037977±0.000005 h[12]
3.0381±0.0002 h[13]
3.04±0.01 h[14]
3.044±0.005 h[15][b]
3.049±0.001 h[16]
3.049±0.002 h[17]
Tholen = E[1] · E[7]
SMASS = Xk [1][3] ·
B–V = 0.731[1]
U–B = 0.242[1]
12.25[1][5] · 12.33±0.91[18] · 12.53[3][7] · 12.53±0.08[8][17]

1103 Sequoia (/səˈkwɔɪ.ə/), provisional designation 1928 VB, is a bright Hungaria asteroid from the innermost region of the asteroid belt, approximately 7 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 9 November 1928, by German astronomer Walter Baade at the Bergedorf Observatory in Hamburg, Germany, who named it after the Sequoia National Park located in California.[19]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Sequoia is a bright member of the Hungaria family (003),[4] a large family within the larger dynamical Hungaria group that forms the innermost dense concentration of asteroids in the Solar System.[3][20]:23 It orbits the Sun at a distance of 1.8–2.1 AU once every 2 years and 8 months (982 days; semi-major axis of 1.93 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.09 and an inclination of 18° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

The body's observation arc begins at the North African Algiers Observatory in December 1928, about 7 weeks after its official discovery observation at Bergedorf.[19]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen classification and based on observations by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), Sequoia is a bright E-type asteroid,[1][7] which is the predominant type for members of the Hungaria family,[20]:23 while in the SMASS classification, it is a Xk-subtype that transitions between the X- and K-type asteroids.[1][3]

Rotation period[edit]

A large number of rotational lightcurves[b] of Sequoia have been obtained from photometric observations since 1990.[9][10][13][14][15][16][17] Best rated lightcurve by Italian amateur astronomer Silvano Casulli from December 2006 gave a rotation period of 3.03784 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.44 magnitude (U=3).[3][9]


Sequoia's lightcurve has also been modeled several times and gave a concurring sidereal period of 3.03797, 3.037976 and 3.037977 hours.[11][12][a] In 2016, the large collaboration of astronomers also published a spin axis of (60.0°, −59.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[11]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Sequoia measures between 5.21 and 7.816 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.2813 and 0.823.[5][6][7][8]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts Petr Pravec's revised WISE results, that is, an albedo of 0.2813 and a diameter of 7.82 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.53.[3][8]


This minor planet was named after the Sequoia National Park located in California, United States, where the discoverer spent his vacations. The park is famous for its giant sequoia trees. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H n.a.).[2]


  1. ^ a b Durech (2006).(1103) Sequoia: sidereal rotation period of 3.037975 hours (Quality code of 2). Two spin axes at (82.0, -75.0) and (209.0, -76.0) in ecliptic coordinates. Summary figures at the LCDB
  2. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of 1103 Sequoia, Palmer Divide Observatory, B. D. Warner (2011). Summary figures at the LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1103 Sequoia (1928 VB)" (2017-11-26 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  2. ^ a b Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1103) Sequoia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 94. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "LCDB Data for (1103) Sequoia". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  5. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  6. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645Freely accessible. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results" (PDF). The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  8. ^ a b c d e Pravec, Petr; Harris, Alan W.; Kusnirák, Peter; Galád, Adrián; Hornoch, Kamil (September 2012). "Absolute magnitudes of asteroids and a revision of asteroid albedo estimates from WISE thermal observations". Icarus. 221 (1): 365–387. Bibcode:2012Icar..221..365P. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2012.07.026. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  9. ^ a b c d Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1103) Sequoia". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  10. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (January 2015). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at CS3-Palmer Divide Station: 2014 June-October". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 42 (1): 54–60. Bibcode:2015MPBu...42...54W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  11. ^ a b c Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Oszkiewicz, D. A.; Behrend, R.; Carry, B.; Delbo, M.; et al. (February 2016). "New and updated convex shape models of asteroids based on optical data from a large collaboration network" (PDF). Astronomy and Astrophysics. 586: 24. arXiv:1510.07422Freely accessible. Bibcode:2016A&A...586A.108H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527441. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  12. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; et al. (June 2011). "A study of asteroid pole-latitude distribution based on an extended set of shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 530: 16. arXiv:1104.4114Freely accessible. Bibcode:2011A&A...530A.134H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116738. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  13. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (April 2015). "Two New Binaries and Continuing Observations of Hungaria Group Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 42 (2): 132–136. Bibcode:2015MPBu...42..132W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  14. ^ a b Lecrone, Crystal; Duncan, Allison; Kirkpatrick, Elaine (December 2004). "Lightcurves and periods for asteroids 105 Artemis, 978 Aidamina, and 1103 Sequoia". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 31 (4): 77–78. Bibcode:2004MPBu...31...77L. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  15. ^ a b Warner, Brian D. (January 2012). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at the Palmer Divide Observatory: 2011 June - September". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 39 (1): 16–21. Bibcode:2012MPBu...39...16W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  16. ^ a b Shevchenko, V. G.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Chiorny, V. G.; Belskaya, I. N.; Gaftonyuk, N. M. (August 2003). "Rotation and photometric properties of E-type asteroids". Planetary and Space Science. 51 (9-10): 525–532. Bibcode:2003P&SS...51..525S. doi:10.1016/S0032-0633(03)00076-X. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  17. ^ a b c Wisniewski, W. Z.; Michalowski, T. M.; Harris, A. W.; McMillan, R. S. (March 1995). "Photoelectric Observations of 125 Asteroids". Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference. Bibcode:1995LPI....26.1511W. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  18. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  19. ^ a b "1103 Sequoia (1928 VB)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 
  20. ^ a b Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). "Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families" (PDF). Asteroids IV: 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628Freely accessible. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. Retrieved 10 January 2018. 

External links[edit]