From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1130
- 1.2 1131
- 1.3 1132
- 1.4 1133
- 1.5 1134
- 1.6 1135
- 1.7 1136
- 1.8 1137
- 1.9 1138
- 1.10 1139
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- 6 Sources
- January 22 – Jin–Song Wars: Jin forces take Hangzhou.
- February 4 – Jin–Song Wars: Jin forces take Shaoxing.
- February 14 – Pope Innocent II succeeds Pope Honorius II, as the 164th pope. Other factions (including Roger II of Sicily), however, support Anacletus II as pope, leading to the papal schism of 1130, and Innocent flees to France.
- March 26 – Magnus IV and his uncle Harald Gille become joint kings of Norway, starting the civil war era in Norway.
- April 24 – Jin–Song Wars: Battle of Huangtiandang – Naval forces of the Song Dynasty trap Wuzhu's Jin troops in the city for 48 days.
- December 25 – Antipope Anacletus crowns Roger II of Sicily king.
- Approximate date – Magnus the Strong is deposed as king of Götaland, when Sverker the Elder proclaims himself king of Sweden.
- Ramon Berenguer IV becomes Count of Barcelona.
- Between 1131 and 1136 – Theotokos of Vladimir arrives in Kiev.
- The Knights Templar found their first stronghold, in the Kingdom of Aragon.
Arts and culture
- May 9 – Tintern Abbey is founded.
- The Council of Rheims is held.
- Alberich becomes Archdeacon of Reims.
- Hangzhou is declared the new capital of Song Dynasty China, after their retreat south during the conquest of northern China, by the Jurchen Jin Dynasty.
- June – A fire breaks out in the Song Dynasty Chinese capital of Hangzhou, destroying 13,000 homes and forcing many to flee to nearby hills. Due to large fires such as this, the government installs an effective fire fighting force for the city. Items such as bamboo, planks, and rush-matting are temporarily exempted from taxation, 120 tons of rice are distributed to the poor, and the government temporarily suspends the housing rent requirement of the city's residents.
- July 24 – Battle of Nocera: Ranulf II of Alife defeats Roger II of Sicily.
- Dermot MacMurrough has the abbey of Kildare in Ireland burned, and the abbess raped. He becomes king of the province of Leinster.
- St. Malachy is made bishop of Armagh in Ireland, to impose the Roman liturgy on the independent Irish Church.
- Fountains Abbey and Rievaulx Abbey are founded in Yorkshire; Basingwerk Abbey is founded in Wales.
- Barnwell Castle is erected in Northamptonshire, England.
- The Japanese era 長承 (Choushou) begins.
- Tughril II starts his rule of Iraq.
- Champa again invades Vietnam.
- Under the Song Dynasty, China's first permanent standing navy is established in this year, with the headquarters of the admiral stationed at Dinghai.
- Abd al-Mu'min becomes Almohad caliph in North Africa.
- Geoffrey of Monmouth produces the Historia Regum Britanniae.
- Construction of the Durham Cathedral is completed in England.
- Construction of Exeter Cathedral begins in England.
- June 4 – Lothair III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Innocent II.
- A papal bull grants Sardinia and half of Corsica to Pisa.
- Battle of Fraga: The Castellan troops, led by King Alfonso the Battler, defeat the Almoravid army, thanks to a timely intervention of a Norman crusader army from Tarragona, led by Robert Burdet.
- Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona launches a raid against Almoravid-held territories in al-Andalus, and pillages the country all the way to Cadiz.
- Hugh II of Le Puiset, Count of Jaffa, revolts against King Fulk of Jerusalem.
- Mas'ud becomes sultan of the Seljuk Turks.
- The Kangguo Era begins, in the Kara-Khitan Khanate.
- Wu Ge, the Chinese Song Dynasty Deputy Transport Commissioner of Zhejiang, has paddle wheel warships constructed with a total of nine wheels, and others with thirteen wheels.
- Vsevolod Mstislavich of Novgorod defeats the Chuds and captures Tartu.
- Yuri Dolgoruki founds the town of Skniatino.
- Iziaslav II of Kiev becomes Prince of Vladimir and Volyn.
- Viacheslav of Kiev becomes Prince of Turov.
- Ermengarde becomes Viscountess of Narbonne.
- Narbonne is seized by Alphonse I of Toulouse.
- Battle of Fraga: Castillan forces are defeated by Muslim troops; Alfonso I of Aragon is killed, and succeeded by Ramiro II in Aragon, and Garcia VI in Navarre.
- Roger II of Sicily defeats a revolt in Naples.
- Called by Olegarius, the bishop of Tarragona, the Knights Templar establish their first stronghold in Catalonia.
- Battle of Färlev: Magnus IV of Norway defeats Harald IV Gille of Norway.
- Battle of Fotevik: Harald Kesja and Magnus the Strong are defeated by the forces of Erik Emune.
- Eric II becomes King of Denmark.
- The House of Brandenburg is founded, when Albrecht the Bear is made head of the Nordmark.
- Aed mac Domnaill becomes King of Ui Failghe.
- Much of Chartres, France, is destroyed by fire.
- Henry of Lausanne is sentenced to imprisonment by Pope Innocent II.
- The Zeeland archipelago is created by a massive storm in the North Sea.
- Hermann III of Baden marries Bertha of Lorraine.
- Ulrich I becomes Duke of Carinthia.
- May 13 – The Saint-Denis basilica, near Paris, is damaged by a fire. This will give the opportunity to the abbot Suger to rebuild it in a new style, which will open the Gothic period of architecture.
- The University of Salamanca is established, in the Kingdom of León.
- Abdul Qadir Jilani becomes principal of the Hanbali school in Baghdad.
- The Japanese classic text Uchigikishu is written.
- Robert of Ketton and Herman of Carinthia travel throughout France, the Byzantine Empire, and the Crusader States.
- Cormac's Chapel is consecrated.
- Saint Malachy becomes Archbishop of Armagh.
- The Church of St. James is dedicated in Glasgow.
- The Augustinian Runcorn Priory is transferred to Norton Priory.
- Buckfastleigh Abbey is refounded.
- Aelred of Hexham enters the monastery at Rievaulx Abbey.
- St. Stephen Harding becomes Abbot of Cîteaux Abbey.
- Saint Hugh of Grenoble is canonized by Innocent II.
- The Cathedral of St. Petri in Schleswig is completed.
- The Abbey of St. Jacob is founded in Würzburg.
- Evermode of Ratzeburg becomes Abbot of Gottesgnaden.
- The Humiliati retreat to a monastery in Milan.
- Leo Styppes becomes Patriarch of Constantinople.
- The troops of Roger II of Sicily take Djerba.
- The Hammadid Emirate launches an assault against Mahdia in Ifriqiya.
- Song Dynasty Chinese general Yue Fei defeats the rebel forces of Yang Yao, by entangling his swift paddle-wheel ships with rotten logs and other debris, precariously placed in the river. Yue Fei's forces easily board their ships and win a victory.
- The domination of Baghdad by the Seljuk Turks ends.
- May 26 – Alfonso VII of León and Castile is crowned in the Cathedral of Leon as Imperator totius Hispaniae, "Emperor of All the Spains".
- 10 August - The Battle of Konungahella is fought.
- December 1 – Stephen succeeds his uncle Henry I, as king of England. Matilda, daughter of Henry I and widow of Holy Roman Emperor Henry V, opposes Stephen and claims the throne as her own.
- The first records of the Manor of Cramlington come into existence.
- May 26 – A fire in London seriously damages St Paul's Cathedral and London Bridge on Pentecost.
- The Pisans, in the service of the Holy See, sack the city of Amalfi.
- The Republic of Florence keeps expending its control over its surrounding countryside, and conquers the neighboring city of Montebuoni.
- A Moorish fleet raids the Catalan port-town of Elna.
- January – Byland Abbey is founded.
- The Cistercian Abbey of St. Mary and St. Chad is founded by Roger de Clinton, bishop of Coventry (1129–48).
- February 5 – Treaty of Durham: Stephen I of England concedes Cumberland to David I of Scotland.
- The people of Novgorod rebel against the hereditary prince Vsevolod of Pskov, and depose him.
- Battle of Crug Mawr: Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans.
- Duke Grimoald of Bari, supported by Emperor Lothair III, rebels against King Roger II of Sicily.
- In Russia, the Novgorod Republic (which is one of the major successors to the Kievan Rus') is established in the north west of the region, after 254 years.
- Melrose Abbey is founded, by King David I of Scotland.
Arts and culture
- The Saint Denis Basilica is completed in Paris, France.
- Peter Abelard writes the Historia Calamitatum, detailing his relationship with Heloise.
- The Ethiopian Empire is established, under the Zagwe Dynasty.
- In the first commercial treaty between the Almohads and a Christian power, Genoa obtains trading rights in the ports of North Africa.
- In Song Dynasty China, a fire breaks out in the new capital of Hangzhou; the government suspends the requirement of rent payments, alms of 108,840 kg (120 tons) of rice are distributed to the poor, and items such as bamboo, planks, and rush-matting are exempted from government taxation.
- March – Stephen of England fails in his attempt to re-capture the Duchy of Normandy, from Empress Matilda of England.
- July 25 – Louis VII of France marries Eleanor of Aquitaine, daughter of William X, in Bordeaux Cathedral.
- August 1 – Louis succeeds as King of France, on the death of his father.
- A fleet of thirty-seven Almoravid ships attacks the coasts of southern Italy, under Norman rule.
- Rochester Cathedral in England is severely damaged by a fire, and soon rebuilt.
- March 13
- April 10 – Robert Warelwast is nominated as Bishop of Exeter.
- July – Bavaria is taken away from the Welfen Henry X, Duke of Bavaria, and given to the Margrave Leopold IV of Austria.
- August 22 – Battle of the Standard in Yorkshire: David I of Scotland is defeated by the English.
- October 11 – An earthquake in Aleppo, Syria, kills about 230,000 people.
- November 5 – Lý Anh Tông is enthroned as emperor of Đại Việt at the age of two, starting a 37-year reign.
- The earldom of Pembroke, created for Gilbert de Clare, is the first earldom created by the Norman kings within the borders of Wales.
- The consuls of Florence are first mentioned, indicating that the city has become an independent and self-governing commune.
- July 8 or August 21 – Battle of Yancheng: Song Dynasty general Yue Fei defeats an army led by Jin Dynasty general Wuzhu, during the Jin–Song Wars.
- January 25 – Godfrey II, Count of Louvain becomes Duke of Brabant.
- April 8 – Roger II of Sicily is excommunicated by Pope Innocent II.
- April 9 – The Treaty of Durham is signed, between King Stephen of England and David I of Scotland.
- July 22 – Pope Innocent II, invading the Kingdom of Sicily, is ambushed at Galluccio and taken prisoner.
- July 25
- By the Treaty of Mignano, Pope Innocent II proclaims Roger II of Sicily as King of Sicily, Duke of Apulia and Prince of Capua.
- Battle of Ourique: The independence of Portugal from the Kingdom of León is declared after the Almoravids, led by Ali ibn Yusuf, are defeated by Prince Afonso Henriques. He then becomes Afonso I, King of Portugal, after calling the first assembly of the Estates-General of Portugal at Lamego, where he is given the Crown from the Bishop of Bragança, to confirm the independence.
- April – Second Council of the Lateran: The Anacletus schism is settled, and priestly celibacy is made mandatory within the Catholic Church.
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- 1138 Maimonides
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- Fletcher, R. A. (1987). "Reconquest and Crusade in Spain c. 1050-1150". Transactions of the Royal Historical Society. 5. 37: 31–47. JSTOR 3679149.
- Johns, Jeremy (2002). Arabic Administration in Norman Sicily: The Royal Diwan. Cambridge Studies in Islamic Civilization. Cambridge University Press. p. 85. ISBN 978-0521816922.
- Kleinhenz, Christopher, ed. (2010). Medieval Italy: an encyclopedia. 1. Routledge. p. 95. ISBN 978-0415939294.
- McGrank, Lawrence (1981). "Norman crusaders in the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and the principality of Tarragona, 1129-55". Journal of Medieval History. 7 (1): 67–82. doi:10.1016/0304-4181(81)90036-1.
- Meynier, Gilbert (2010). L'Algérie cœur du Maghreb classique. De l'ouverture islamo-arabe au repli (658-1518) (in French). Paris: La Découverte. p. 86. ISBN 978-2707152312.