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- Geoffrey of Monmouth produces the Historia Regum Britanniae.
- Construction of the Durham Cathedral is completed in England.
- Construction of Exeter Cathedral begins in England.
- June 4 – Lothair III is crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Innocent II.
- A papal bull grants Sardinia and half of Corsica to Pisa.
- Foundation of Rijnsburg Abbey by Petronilla of Lorraine in Holland.
- Battle of Fraga: The Castellan troops, led by King Alfonso the Battler, defeat the Almoravid army, thanks to a timely intervention of a Norman crusader army from Tarragona, led by Robert Burdet.
- Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona launches a raid against Almoravid-held territories in al-Andalus, and pillages the country all the way to Cadiz.
- The first convent on Iceland, the Þingeyraklaustur, is inaugurated.
- March 5 – King Henry II of England (d. 1189)
- Hōnen, Japanese founder of Pure Land Buddhism (d. 1212)
- Urraca of Castile, Queen of Navarre (d. 1179)
- King Sigurd II of Norway (d. 1155)
- February 19 or 1123 – Irene Ducaena, Byzantine Empress consort, married to Alexius I Comnenus (b. 1066)
- December 18 – Hildebert, French writer
- McGrank, Lawrence (1981). "Norman crusaders in the Catalan reconquest: Robert Burdet and the principality of Tarragona, 1129-55". Journal of Medieval History. 7 (1): 67–82. doi:10.1016/0304-4181(81)90036-1.