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Year 1146 (MCXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
- March 1 – Pope Eugene III reissues the bull Quantum praedecessores of 1145, calling for the Second Crusade.
- March 31 – Bernard of Clairvaux preaches the Second Crusade at Vézelay, in Burgundy. Louis VII of France and his wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, take up the cross. In a repeat of the events of 1096, Crusaders attack and massacre Jewish communities along the Rhine. Bernard de Clairvaux condemns these pogroms in strong terms, reminding the Crusaders that those who attacked the Jewish people during the previous Crusade came to a sorry end, and were massacred to the last man by the Turks.
- Ildeniz, atabeg of Azerbaijan, founds the first independent Turkish dynasty of Azerbaijan.
- The city of Bryansk is first mentioned in written records.
- The Republic of Genoa raids the Muslim-held Balearic Islands. The Republic of Pisa protests officially, seeing the islands as rightfully theirs. The Genoese then proceed to lay siege to Almería, in vain.
- While discussing the details of a military expedition against the Almoravids for the following year, the representative of the Republic of Genoa and the count of Barcelona reach a commercial agreement, granting privileges to merchants of both nations in the Catalan and Ligurian ports.
- The city of Quona is conquered by the Republic of Florence, in a drive to expand its control over the surrounding countryside.
- A rainy year causes the harvest to fail in Europe; one of the worst famines of the century ensues.