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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1159 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1159
Ab urbe condita1912
Armenian calendar608
Assyrian calendar5909
Balinese saka calendar1080–1081
Bengali calendar566
Berber calendar2109
English Regnal yearHen. 2 – 6 Hen. 2
Buddhist calendar1703
Burmese calendar521
Byzantine calendar6667–6668
Chinese calendar戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
3855 or 3795
    — to —
己卯年 (Earth Rabbit)
3856 or 3796
Coptic calendar875–876
Discordian calendar2325
Ethiopian calendar1151–1152
Hebrew calendar4919–4920
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1215–1216
 - Shaka Samvat1080–1081
 - Kali Yuga4259–4260
Holocene calendar11159
Igbo calendar159–160
Iranian calendar537–538
Islamic calendar553–554
Japanese calendarHōgen 4 / Heiji 1
Javanese calendar1065–1066
Julian calendar1159
Korean calendar3492
Minguo calendar753 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−309
Seleucid era1470/1471 AG
Thai solar calendar1701–1702
Tibetan calendar阳土虎年
(male Earth-Tiger)
1285 or 904 or 132
    — to —
(female Earth-Rabbit)
1286 or 905 or 133

Year 1159 (MCLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.





  1. ^ Barlow, Frank (April 1936). "The English, Norman, and French Councils Called to Deal with the Papal Schism of 1159". The English Historical Review. 51 (202): 264–268. doi:10.1093/ehr/LI.CCII.264. ISSN 0013-8266. JSTOR 553521. In September 1159 Pope Adrian IV died, and a double election was made to the Papacy. The imperialist faction chose Octavian, cardinal-priest of St. Cecilia, who took the title of Victor IV, and the church party Roland, the chancellor, who became known as Alexander III.
  2. ^ Dolan, Terence (2002) [1999]. "Chapter 8: Writing in Ireland". In Wallace, David (ed.). The Cambridge History of Medieval English Literature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 208. ISBN 9780521890465.
  3. ^ Barnum, Samuel Weed (1876). Romanism as it is: An Exposition of the Roman Catholic System, for the Use of the American People Embracing a Full Account of Its Origin and Development at Rome and from Rome, Its Distinctive Features in Theory and Practice, Its Characteristic Tendencies and Aims, Its Statistical and Moral Position, and Its Special Relations to American Institutions and Liberties; the Whole Drawn from Official and Authentic Sources, and Enriched with Numerous Illustrations, Documentary, Historical, Descriptive, Anecdotical and Pictorial: Together with a Full and Complete Index, and an Appendix of Matters from 1871 to 1876. Hartford, CT: Connecticut Publishing Company. p. 11.
  4. ^ Febbraro, Flavio; Shwetje, Burkhard (2010). How To Read World History in Art: From the Code of Hammurabit to September 11. New York: Abrams Books. p. 100. ISBN 9780810996830.
  5. ^ Matsunami, Yoshihiro (1979). "Conflict within the Development of Buddhism". Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. 6 (1/2): 329–345. doi:10.18874/jjrs.6.1-2.1979.329-345. ISSN 0304-1042. JSTOR 30233204. Wars, beginning with the Hogen rebellion of 1156 and the Heiji rebellion of 1159, occurred in rapid succession, bringing confusion and chaos to the people.
  6. ^ Selinger, Vyjayanthi R. (2013). "Chapter 1: Genpei Jōsuiki and the Historical Narration of the Genpei War". Authorizing the Shogunate: Ritual and Material Symbolism in the Literary Construction of Warrior Order. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 1. ISBN 9789004255333.
  7. ^ Abels, Richard Philip; Bachrach, Bernard S. (2001). The Normans and Their Adversaries at War: Essays in Memory of C. Warren Hollister. Woodbridge, UK, Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer. p. 99. ISBN 9780851158471.
  8. ^ Perkins, Kenneth J. (2016). Historical Dictionary of Tunisia (Third ed.). Lanham, MA, Boulder, CO, New York, London: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 197. ISBN 9781442273184.
  9. ^ Jacobs, Daniel; Morris, Peter (2001). The Rough Guide to Tunisia. London and New York: Rough Guides. p. 432. ISBN 9781858287485.
  10. ^ Tout, Thomas Frederick (1920). Chapters in the Administrative History of Mediaeval England: The Wardrobe, the Chamber and the Small Seals. Vol. 1. Manchester and New York: Manchester University Press. p. 88.
  11. ^ Abbey, Chatteris (1999). The Cartulary of Chatteris Abbey. Woodbridge, UK and Rochester, NY: Boydell Press. p. 29. ISBN 9780851157504.
  12. ^ Karn, Nicholas (2007). "Nigel, bishop of Ely, and the restoration of the exchequer after the 'anarchy' of King Stephen's reign*". Historical Research. 80 (209): 299–314. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2006.00392.x. ISSN 1468-2281. The author of the Liber Eliensis indicates that Richard was appointed in 1159, during the preparations for the Toulouse campaign
  13. ^ Carter, Steven D. (2014). The Columbia Anthology of Japanese Essays: Zuihitsu from the Tenth to the Twenty-First Century. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 162. ISBN 9780231537551.
  14. ^ Henshall, K. (2012) [1999]. A History of Japan: From Stone Age to Superpower. London and New York: Springer. p. 32. ISBN 9780230369184.
  15. ^ Miyawaki–okada, Junko (January 1, 2006). "The Japanese Origin of the Chinggis Khan Legends". Inner Asia. 8 (1): 123–34. doi:10.1163/146481706793646819. ISSN 2210-5018. Minamoto no Yoshitsune, or Gen Gikei as his name is in Sino-Japanese pronunciation, was born in 1159 as a half brother of Minamoto no Yoritomo
  16. ^ Salamon, Maciej; Hardt, Matthias; Kruk, Mirosław Piotr; Sulikowska, Aleksandra (2012). "The Archetypal Crusader. Henry of Sandomierz, the Second Youngest Son of Bolesław III by Darius Von Güttner-Sporzyński". Rome, Constantinople and Newly-converted Europe: Archaeological and Historical Evidence. Kraków, Leipzig, Rzeszów, Warszawa: Geisteswissenschaftliches Zentrum Geschichte und Kultur Ostmitteleuropas. p. 215. ISBN 9788389499851. Within the decade of his birth Henry's father died, and Henry's elder half-brother Władysław ii Wygnaniec (the exile [1105-1159]) ascended the Polish throne.
  17. ^ Berend, Nora; Urbańczyk, Przemysław; Wiszewski, Przemysław (2013). Central Europe in the High Middle Ages: Bohemia, Hungary and Poland, c.900–c.1300. Cambridge Medieval Textbooks. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 175. ISBN 9781107651395.
  18. ^ Garland, Lynda (1999). Byzantine Empresses: Women and Power in Byzantium AD 527-1204. London and New York: Routledge. p. 201. ISBN 9781134756391.
  19. ^ Runciman, Steven (1954). A History of the Crusades: The Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Frankish East, 1100-1187. University Press. p. 359. ISBN 9780521061636. About the end of the year 1159 the Empress Irene, born Bertha of Sulzbach, had died leaving only a daughter behind her.
  20. ^ Eden, Bradford Lee (2004). Kleinhenz, Christopher (ed.). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. New York and London: Routledge. p. 487. ISBN 9781135948801.
  21. ^ Williams, George L. (2004). Papal Genealogy: The Families and Descendants of the Popes. Jefferson, NC and London: McFarland. p. 25. ISBN 9780786420711.
  22. ^ Steinberg, S. H. (1991) [1939]. Historical Tables 58 BC – AD 1990 (12th ed.). London and Basigstoke: Springer. p. 45. ISBN 9781349127467.
  23. ^ Lingard, John (1874). "Chapter VIII: William I, Surnamed The Conqueror". The History of England: From the First Invasion by the Romans to the Accession of William and Mary in 1688. Dublin: James Duffy & Sons. p. 216.
  24. ^ McDougall, Sara (2017). Royal Bastards: The Birth of Illegitimacy, 800-1230. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780198785828. In 1159 William "Longsword", count of Boulogne, earl of Warenne by right of his wife, the son of King Stephen of England and his wife Matilda of Boulogne, died without issue.
  25. ^ Hillenbrand, Carol (2003). "The Imprisonment of Reynald at Châtillon". In Robinson, Chase F. (ed.). Texts, documents, and artefacts [electronic resource]: Islamic studies in honour of D.S. Richards. Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 91. ISBN 9789004128644.
  26. ^ Dashdondog, Bayarsaikhan (2011). The Mongols and the Armenians (1220-1335). Leiden, Boston: BRILL. p. 36. ISBN 9789004186354.
  27. ^ Slack, Corliss K. (2003). The A to Z of the Crusades. Lanham, MD and Plymouth, UK: Scarecrow Press. p. 84. ISBN 9780810863316.