1170s in England
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Events from the 1170s in England.
Monarch – Henry II
- April – Henry looks into the financial dealings of officials with an inquest of sheriffs.
- 14 June – coronation of Henry the Young King, son of Henry II of England, by Roger, Archbishop of York.
- 22 July – there is a reconciliation between Henry II and Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, in Fréteval in Western France.
- 21 September – Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke captures Dublin.
- 29 December – murder of Thomas Becket by four of Henry II's knights Reginald Fitzurse, Hugh de Morville, William de Tracy, and Richard le Breton inside Canterbury Cathedral.
- Earliest record of the making of Cheddar cheese.
- 17 April – Henry leaves Ireland, having received the support of the Church for his claim.
- 21 May – in Avranches Cathedral, Henry II performs a ceremony of penance for the death of Becket, in return for a papal agreement to clear him of the murder.
- 27 August – formal marriage and coronation of Henry the Young King, son of Henry II, and Margaret of France by Rotrou (archbishop of Rouen) at Winchester Cathedral.
- 21 February – canonisation of Thomas Becket; his tomb at Canterbury becomes a shrine and popular pilgrimage destination.
- March – Henry the Young King withdraws to the French court, marking the beginning of the Revolt of 1173–1174, a dispute between Henry II, Eleanor of Aquitaine and three of their sons over the territories they control. Eleanor is placed under de facto house arrest. William I of Scotland invades the North of England in support of the rebellion.
- 7 April – Richard of Dover enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury.
- 8 July – Henry the Young King and Eleanor of Aquitaine take ship for England from Barfleur. As soon as they disembark at Southampton, Eleanor is imprisoned in the care of Ralph fitzStephen, in which condition she remains until 1189.
- 12 July – Henry II does penance at Canterbury for the murder of Becket.
- 13 July – Battle of Alnwick: William I of Scotland is captured by Ranulf de Glanvill after attacking England in support of the revolt.
- 5 September – the choir of Canterbury Cathedral is destroyed by fire.
- 30 September – Treaty of Montlouis: the rebellion of Henry II's sons ends peacefully.
- 8 December – Treaty of Falaise signed between Henry II and William I of Scotland permits William's release in return for homage.
- Horse racing at Newmarket is first recorded, making it the earliest known racing venue of the post-classical era.
- May – Council of Oxford: Henry II grants Cork and Limerick to English barons, provides for the administration of Leinster and makes his son, John of England, Lord of Ireland. He also grants lordships in Shropshire to his brother-in-law, Prince Dafydd ab Owain Gwynedd.
- 21 September – Pact of Ivry: Non-aggression treaty between England and France, which also lays the foundations for the Third Crusade.
- Byland Abbey is established on its final site in Yorkshire by the Cistercians.
- Abbas Benedictus becomes abbot of Peterborough.
- Possible date – Richard FitzNeal begins to write his treatise Dialogus de Scaccario ("Dialogue concerning the Exchequer").
- April – establishment of the Grand Assize, using a jury to decide legal claims over property ownership, instead of trial by combat.
- Richard completes the subjugation of Aquitaine.
- Preston, Lancashire, is granted a Guild Merchant charter by Henry II.
- William the Englishman takes over the rebuilding of the choir and Trinity Chapel of Canterbury Cathedral after the previous architect, William of Sens, is injured in a fall, introducing the Early English Gothic style of architecture.
- Westminster School is founded by the monks of Westminster Abbey.
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