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- June 10 – Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Saleph River, while leading an army to Jerusalem.
- November 24 – Isabella of Jerusalem marries Conrad of Montferrat at Acre, making him de jure king.
- The Teutonic Knights are founded, to defend the Latin states in the Levant.
- In Myanmar, Anawrahta's lineage regains control with the assistance of Sri Lanka. Pagan has been in anarchy. The new regime reforms Burmese Buddhism, on Sri Lankan Theravada models.
- February – Anti-Jewish riots break out in England.
- March 16 – A massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England, led by Richard Malebys, result in the deaths of 150–500 Jews in Clifford's Tower.
- July 4 – Richard I of England and Philip II of France, having met at Vézelay, set out from Marseille to join the Third Crusade.
- October 4 – Richard I of England threatens war against Tancred of Sicily, and captures Messina.
- Battle of Stara Zagora: The Bulgarians defeat Byzantine Emperor Isaac II.
- The Almohad caliph, Yaqub al-Mansur, fails to reconquer Silves, Portugal.
- Henry I becomes Duke of Brabant.
- On the Harmony of Religions and Philosophy (ar. Kitab fasl al-maqal), by Averroes, is first published.
- Speculum Virginum, a German manuscript, is published (approximate date).
- The first known foreign scholar, (Emo of Friesland), commences study at what will become the University of Oxford in England.
- Vincent of Beauvais, French Dominican friar and encyclopedist (d. 1264)
- Maria of Brabant, Holy Roman Empress (d. 1260) (approximate date)
- Peter I, Duke of Brittany (d. 1251)
- William III of Sicily (d. 1198)
- March 15 – Isabella of Hainault, queen of Philip II of France (b. 1170)
- June 10 – Frederick Barbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, (drowned) (b. 1122)
- July 25 – Sibylla, Queen of Jerusalem (b. c. 1160)
- September 20 – Adelog of Hildesheim, German bishop
- Ranulf de Glanvill, chief justiciar of England
- Robert de Beaumont, 3rd Earl of Leicester
- Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.