The first reference to a windmill in Europe is made by a Dean Herbert of East Anglia, whose mills are supposedly in competition with the abbey of Bury St. Edmunds. This is probably an invention imported from interaction with the Muslim world, since the first windmills were most likely innovated from the Bana Musa brothers in the Islamic Middle East, during the middle 9th Century. The windmill will spread in the other direction, to be introduced to China by as early as 1219.
John of England captures a party of eighteen French knights & many men-at-arms, in the ongoing conflict against France. King Richard I of England introduces a new Great Seal, in an attempt to keep the war against France funded. The government proclaims that charters previously struck with the old seal are no longer valid, and must be renewed with a fresh payment. The office of Lord Warden of the Stannaries is also introduced, to tax the produce of tin mines in Cornwall and Devon.
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