From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the year 1191.
|Centuries:||11th century · 12th century · 13th century|
|Decades:||1160s · 1170s · 1180s · 1190s · 1200s · 1210s · 1220s|
|Years:||1188 · 1189 · 1190 · 1191 · 1192 · 1193 · 1194|
|1191 by topic|
|State leaders – Sovereign states|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1191 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||1944|
|English Regnal year||2 Ric. 1 – 3 Ric. 1|
|Chinese calendar||庚戌年 (Metal Dog)
3887 or 3827
— to —
辛亥年 (Metal Pig)
3888 or 3828
|- Vikram Samvat||1247–1248|
|- Shaka Samvat||1112–1113|
|- Kali Yuga||4291–4292|
|Japanese calendar||Kenkyū 2
|Minguo calendar||721 before ROC
|Seleucid era||1502/1503 AG|
|Thai solar calendar||1733–1734|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1191.|
- July 12 – Saladin's garrison surrenders, ending the two-year siege of Acre. Conrad of Montferrat, who has negotiated the surrender, raises the banners of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and of the Third Crusade leaders Richard I of England, Philip II of France, and Leopold V of Austria on the city's walls and towers. Richard stays to push on to Jerusalem, but Philip returns to France to take possession of a part of Flanders whose count had died at the siege of Acre. Back in France, Philip also schemes with Richard's brother, John of England, to dispossess Richard of his French lands while he is still away, but the intervention of John's (and Richard's) mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, foils the plan.
- September 7 – Richard I of England defeats Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf in Palestine during the Third Crusade.
- Khmer King Jayavarman VII sacks the capital of Champa.
- First recorded administration of the Taungoo region in modern-day Myanmar when Pagan King Narapatisithu appoints a son-in-law, Ananda Thuriya, to be governor of Kanba Myint.
- April 17 – Tusculum is destroyed by the army of the Commune of Rome.
- May 12 – Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre.
- Henry VI, Holy Roman Emperor is crowned by Pope Celestine III.
- Duke Berthold V of Zähringen founds the city of Bern (present-day Switzerland).
- After having failed in their endeavor the year before, the Almohads reconquer the city of Silves in Portugal. In the same campaign, the Almohads take also Alcácer do Sal while Palmela and Almada are sacked.
- The first reference to a windmill in Europe is made by a Dean Herbert of East Anglia, whose mills are supposedly in competition with the abbey of Bury St Edmunds. This is probably an invention imported from interaction with the Muslim world, since the first windmills were most likely innovated from the Bana Musa brothers in the Islamic Middle East during the middle 9th century. The windmill will spread in the other direction, to be introduced to China by as early as 1219.
- April 14 – Pope Celestine III succeeds Pope Clement III as the 175th pope.
- November 27 – Reginald Fitz Jocelin is elected Archbishop of Canterbury.
- Eisai founds the Rinzai Zen sect in Japan.
- The monks of Glastonbury Abbey dig up the remains of a large knight and a blonde woman and announce to have discovered the tomb of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere.
- January 20 – Theobald V, Count of Blois (b. 1130)
- March 20 – Frederick VI, Duke of Swabia (b. 1167)
- March 27 – Pope Clement III
- December 26 – Reginald Fitz Jocelin, Archbishop-elect of Canterbury
- William V, Marquess of Montferrat, Burgundian crusader (b. c. 1115)
- Walter Ophamil, archdeacon of Cefalù, dean of Agrigento and archbishop of Palermo
- King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 43
- Jean-Claude Maire Vigueur (2010) L'autre Rome. Une histoire des Romains à l'époque communale (XIIe-XIVe siècle). Paris: Tallandier. pp.316.
- Picard, Christophe (1997). La mer et les musulmans d'Occident VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
- Picard, Christophe (2000). Le Portugal musulman (VIIIe-XIIIe siècle. L'Occident d'al-Andalus sous domination islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve & Larose. p. 110. ISBN 2-7068-1398-9.
- Grandsen, Antonia (2001). "The Growth of Glastonbury Traditions and Legends in the Twelfth Century". In J. P. Carley. Glastonbury Abbey and the Arthurian tradition. Boydell & Brewer. p. 43. ISBN 0-85991-572-7.