11th New Zealand Parliament
|11th Parliament of New Zealand|
|Term||23 January 1891 – 6 October 1893|
|Election||New Zealand general election, 1890|
|House of Representatives|
|Speaker of the House||William Steward|
Richard Seddon |
––John Ballance until 27 April 1893†
|Leader of the Opposition||
William Rolleston |
––John Bryce until 31 August 1891
|Speaker of the Council||
Henry Miller |
––Harry Atkinson until 28 June 1892†
HE Rt. Hon. The Earl of Glasgow from 6 June 1892|
––HE Rt. Hon. The Earl of Onslow until 25 February 1892
The 11th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand.
Elections for this term were held in 4 Māori electorates and 62 European electorates on 27 November and 5 December 1890, respectively. A total of 74 MPs were elected - a reduction on the 95 MPs of the previous Parliament.
|first||23 January 1891||30 January 1891|
|second||11 June 1891||25 September 1891|
|third||23 June 1892||11 October 1892|
|fourth||22 June 1893||6 October 1893|
Start of Parliament
|Party||Leader(s)||Seats at start|
|Liberal Party||John Ballance||40|
End of Parliament
|Party||Leader(s)||Seats at end|
|Liberal Party||Richard Seddon||41|
In December 1887, the House of Representatives voted to reduce its membership from general electorates from 91 to 70. The 1890 electoral redistribution used the same 1886 census data used for the 1887 electoral redistribution. In addition, three-member electorates were introduced in the four main centres. This resulted in a major restructuring of electorates, with 12 new electorates created. Of those, four electorates were created for the first time: Te Aroha, Halswell, Dunedin Suburbs, and Palmerston. The remaining eight electorates had previously existed and were re-created through the 1890 electoral redistribution: City of Auckland, City of Christchurch, City of Dunedin, City of Wellington, Ellesmere, Franklin, Geraldine, and Westland.
The 11th Parliament was most significant, as following the 1890 general election, it marked the beginning of party politics in New Zealand with the formation of the Liberal Government, which was to enact major welfare, labour and electoral reforms, including giving the vote to women.
The fourth Atkinson Ministry, known as the Scarecrow Ministry, had been the government. The election had returned several "Independent" or "Labour" members as well as the Liberals. Some of Atkinson’s conservative colleagues proposed schemes that would keep him in office, but Atkinson, who had been Premier on and off for 14 years, announced that the house would be called on 23 January 1891 to decide. On 21 January Atkinson told his colleagues that he was retiring on doctor’s orders, resigned his seat and was sworn into the Legislative Council, and appointed Speaker. When William Rolleston lost the ministerial nomination for Speaker, Edwin Mitchelson announced the resignation of the government. The Governor asked John Ballance to form a government, which he did on 24 January. It was found to have a majority in the house. After a week of debate, the house went into recess until June.
Atkinson was appointed to the Council with six colleagues, on 20 or 22 January 1891. He was widely regarded as having stacked the council before leaving office. There was a 5000-signature petition against the appointments, but they were approved by the Governor, The Earl of Onslow.  The seven appointments on 20 or 22 January to the Council were Atkinson himself plus Charles Bowen, James Fulton, Charles John Johnston, John Davies Ormond, William Downie Stewart, Sr. and John Blair Whyte.
Ballance had considerable difficulty in achieving reform of the Legislative Council, with new appointments to be for seven years rather than life, and he had major disagreements with the Governor. Ballance's victory is seen as establishing an important precedent in the relationship between Governor and Prime Minister.
The Ballance Ministry was the beginning of the Liberal Government, which lasted until 1912. John Ballance died suddenly on 27 April 1893 and whilst Ballance had favoured Robert Stout as his successor, the caucus selected Richard Seddon instead. The Seddon Ministry was in power from 1 May 1893 until 10 June 1906, when Seddon in turn died.
Initial composition of the 11th Parliament
While the Liberal party was the only established party structure at the time, many independent conservative MPs coalesced as a semi-formal conservative opposition under the leadership of John Bryce. Due to the loose nature of this grouping it is difficult to determine the affiliation of some Independent MPs.
- Lawry stood in support of the Atkinson Ministry but changed allegiance to the Liberals in 1891
By-elections during 11th Parliament
There were a number of changes during the term of the 11th Parliament.
|Electorate and by-election||Date||Incumbent||Cause||Winner|
|Northern Maori||1891||7 February||Sydney Taiwhanga||Death||Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa|
|Egmont||1891||17 February||Harry Atkinson||Appointed to Legislative Council||Felix McGuire|
|Newton||1891||31 March||David Goldie||Resignation||George Grey|
|Te Aroha||1891||9 July||William Allen||Disallowed on petition||William Fraser|
|Waikato||1891||6 October||John Bryce||Resignation||Edward Lake|
|City of Christchurch||1891||9 October||Westby Perceval||Appointed Agent General||Ebenezer Sandford|
|City of Wellington||1892||15 January||Kennedy Macdonald||Resignation||William McLean|
|Bruce||1892||4 May||James Thomson||Resignation||James Allen|
|Rangitikei||1892||8 July||Douglas Macarthur||Death||Robert Bruce|
|Inangahua||1893||8 June||Richard Reeves||Bankruptcy||Robert Stout|
|Wanganui||1893||9 June||John Ballance||Death||Archibald Willis|
|Thames||1893||26 July||Alfred Cadman||Resignation||James McGowan|
|City of Auckland||1893||4 August||William Rees||Resignation||Alfred Cadman|
- Scholefield 1950, p. 68.
- McRobie 1989, p. 55.
- McRobie 1989, pp. 54ff.
- Atkinson 2003, p. 81.
- Bassett 1982, p. 2.
- McIvor 1989, p. 179-180.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 40.
- McLintock 1966.
- McIvor, Tim. "Ballance, John - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Hamer, David. "Seddon, Richard John - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- "General elections 1853-2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 6 June 2010.
- "General Elections". Wanganui Herald. XXIV (7283). 6 December 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 31 August 2011.
- "The New House". The Evening Post. 8 December 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
- "Obituary". The Star (7022). 28 November 1890. p. 3. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "The Maori Elections". Northern Advocate. 6 December 1890. p. 2. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 93.
- Scholefield 1950, p. 122.
- Atkinson, Neill (2003). Adventures in Democracy: A History of the Vote in New Zealand. University of Otago Press. ISBN 978-1-877276-58-3. OCLC 469393822.
- Bassett, Michael (1982). Three Party Politics in New Zealand 1911–1931. Auckland: Historical Publications. ISBN 0-86870-006-1.
- McIvor, Timothy (1989). The Rainmaker: A biography of John Ballance. Auckland: Heinemann Reed. ISBN 0-7900-0024-5.
- McLintock, A. H. (22 April 2009) . "Liberal Party". An Encyclopaedia of New Zealand.
- McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
- Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First ed. published 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer.
- Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.