Twelve-inch single

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from 12-inch single)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

A twelve-inch gramophone record

The twelve-inch single (often written as 12-inch or 12″) is a type of vinyl (Polyvinyl Chloride or PVC) gramophone record that has wider groove spacing and shorter playing time with a 'single' or a few related sound tracks on each surface, compared to LPs (long play) which have several songs on each side. This allows for louder levels to be cut on the disc by the mastering engineer, which in turn gives a wider dynamic range, and thus better sound quality. This record type is commonly used in disco and dance music genres, where DJs use them to play in clubs. They are played at either ​33 13 or 45 rpm. The conventional 7‐inch single usually holds three or four minutes of music at full volume. The 12‐inch LP sacrifices volume for extended playing time. In the 1970s, a hybrid was created, the 12‐inch single.

Technical features[edit]

Twelve-inch singles typically have much shorter playing time than full-length LPs, and thus require fewer grooves per inch. This extra space permits a broader dynamic range or louder recording level as the grooves' excursions (i.e., the width of the groove waves and distance traveled from side to side by the turntable stylus) can be much greater in amplitude, especially in the bass frequencies important for dance music. Many record companies in the 1970s began producing 12-inch (30 cm) singles at ​33 13 rpm, although 45 rpm gives better treble response[1] and was used on many twelve-inch singles, especially in the UK.

History[edit]

Pre-vinyl period[edit]

Gramophone records had been introduced in the latter portion of the 19th century, with several pioneers involved in sound reproduction development such as Thomas Edison and Emilie Berliner. Berliner along with Eldridge R. Johnson merged their efforts within the industry to form the Victor Talking Machine Company in New Jersey, USA and perfected the use of 5 and 7-inch rotating shellac discs for sound replay from 1889, with 10-inch records appearing in 1901. In 1903 12-inch discs were introduced by Victor, on their Deluxe label, these able to play for up to four minutes, so increasing what were non-achievable times of the length of a song or speech on the earlier formats. These first twelve-inch releases were all by the Victor Grand Concert Band,[2] led by Frederick W. Hager.[3] During the 1910s discs became the standard sound reproduction format, although the speeds used could vary between manufacturers until 78 rpm became the norm from around 1925. An album would consist of several of these single discs packaged together. These brittle shellac discs remained a popular medium through the first attempt to introduce vinyl records in 1931, the subsequent move towards microgroove formats from 1948, and would survive until the early 1960s.[4]

Vinyl and microgroove formats[edit]

In August 1931, RCA Victor launched the first commercially available vinyl long-playing record, marketed under their 'Program Transcription' series. These revolutionary discs were designed for playback at 3313 rpm (the speed first used on 16-inch Vitaphone soundtrack discs from 1926) and pressed on ten and twelve-inch diameter flexible 'Victrolac' vinyl discs, marketed initially as being more robust than shellac, with a duration of up to twenty minutes playing time per side.[5] The first twelve-inch LP (containing only one track per side), was Beethoven's Symphony No. 5 In C Minor by the Philadelphia Orchestra conducted by Leopold Stokowski.[6] RCA's early introduction of a long-play disc was a commercial failure for several reasons including the lack of affordable, reliable consumer playback equipment and consumer wariness during the Great Depression. Because of financial hardships that plagued the recording industry during that period (and RCA's own parched revenues), Victor's long-playing records were discontinued for public sale by early 1933.[7] However, the technology continued to be used, notably with broadcasters, on larger 16-inch radio transcription discs. Wax or lacquered discs, similar to the masters used to press records and sometimes referred to as acetates or reference (ref) discs, were at this time made to create one-time promotional product such as songs or jingles used by radio stations, as well as archiving.

Vinyl as a material for records sold to the public was reintroduced after World War II but with a narrower 'microgroove', 12-inch 3313 rpm LPs and 7-inch 45 rpm singles being marketed by Columbia Records and RCA Victor respectively in 1948 and 1949. Intriguingly, although there is a scientific basis behind 45 rpm being an ideal speed for sound quality which was touted by RCA,[8] conveniently the 45 rpm number is also derived by subtracting the then common 78 rpm speed from the then newly introduced 33 rpm LP speed.[9] More lengthier tracks could be accommodated on each side of the 12-inch disc, or shorter but more numerous tracks per side. Indeed, the very first 12-inch vinyl album in 1948, Mendelssohn's Concerto in E Minor featured only 3 tracks (one 11 minute track on side one, and two tracks on side two taking up 14 minutes in total) and was extended play (EP) in appearance, rather than a typical album with multiple tracks each being on average 2–4 minutes such as the very first 10-inch vinyl album, a reissue of The Voice of Frank Sinatra. While one to two short playing songs being sold to the public were more suited for the seven-inch 45 rpm record, the LP could be anything from 1 track per side, and if in that simplistic configuration it technically could be classed as a twelve-inch single. Over the ensuring years some works, particularly in the classical and jazz genres, and the relatively few tracks on an occasional album could blur the boundaries of what would become considered a twelve-inch single, an EP and an album, with the price, catalogue number, any stylistic aims of the performing artist, marketing by the record label, as well as record industry sales charts rules regulating the differences between formats. Shakara by Fela Kuti released in 1972, while containing only two lengthy tracks (one 14 minute track per side) was released as an album by EMI.

Jamaican roots[edit]

The gramophone records cut especially for dance-floor DJs came into existence with the advent of recorded Jamaican mento music in the 1950s. By at least 1956 it was already standard practice by Jamaican sound systems owners to give their "selecter" DJs acetate or flexi disc dubs of exclusive mento and Jamaican rhythm and blues recordings before they were issued commercially.[10] Songs such as Theophilus Beckford's "Easy Snappin'" (recorded in 1956) were played as exclusives by Sir Coxson's Downbeat sound system for years before they were actually released in 1959 – only to become major local hits, also pressed in the UK by Island Records and Blue Beat Records as early as 1960. As the 1960s creativity bloomed along, and with the development of multitrack recording facilities, special mixes of rocksteady and early reggae tunes were given as exclusives to dancehall DJs and selecters. With the 1967 Jamaican invention of remix, called dub on the island, those "specials" became valuable items sold to allied sound system DJs, who could draw crowds with their exclusive hits. The popularity of remix sound engineer King Tubby, who single-handedly invented and perfected dub remixes from as early as 1967, led to more exclusive dub plates being cut. By then 10-inch records were used to cut those dubs. By 1971, most reggae singles issued in Jamaica included on their B-side a dub remix of the A-side, many of them first tested as exclusive "dub plates" on dances. Those dubs basically included drum and bass-oriented remixes used by sound system selecters. The 10-inch acetate "specials" would remain popular until at least the 2000s (decade) in Jamaica. Several Jamaican DJs such as DJ Kool Herc exported much of the hip hop dance culture from Jamaica to the Bronx in the early 1970s, including the common Jamaican practice of DJs rapping over instrumental dub remixes of hit songs (See King Stitt, U Roy, Dennis Alcapone, Dillinger), ultimately leading to the advent of rap culture in the United States. Most likely, the widespread use of exclusive dub acetates in Jamaica also led American DJs to do the same.

From 1976, the issued twelve-inch-single trend spread to Jamaica, where hundreds of reggae singles were pressed in this format, and commercially issued as "discomixes" to catch on the disco hype. These singles included The Maytones' "Creation Time" (GG Records, 1976); and Bob Marley and the Wailers' "Keep on Moving" (Upsetter Records, 1977) produced and remixed by Lee "Scratch" Perry, featuring a dub mix and a rap mix by Wung Chu all gathered on the same side and edited together.

In the United States[edit]

The twelve-inch single vinyl gramophone record came into popularity with the advent of disco music in the 1970s after these earlier market experiments. However, at least four known pioneering early vinyl issues predated the middle 1970s discotheque period, with their songs being similar in composition and length to 7-inch or album track releases.

Pre-disco[edit]

In March 1970, Cycle/Ampex Records test-marketed a twelve-inch single by jazz-pop guitarist Buddy Fite, featuring "Glad Rag Doll" backed with "For Once In My Life",[11] both from his self-titled debut album issued in 1969.[12] The experiment aimed to energize the struggling singles market, offering a new option for consumers who had stopped buying traditional singles. The record was pressed at 33 rpm, with identical run times to the seven-inch 45 rpm pressing of the single and album. Several hundred copies were made available for sale for 98 cents each at two Tower Records stores.[13]

Shelter Records evidently liked the format enough to use it a few times to promote artists in the US and Australia - they serviced a test pressing of Leon Russell's "It's A Hard Rain's Gonna Fall" backed with "Me And Baby Jane" to radio stations in July 1971,[14] the first track from his Leon Russell And The Shelter People album, with the flip side from his Carney album. Shelter later issued another promotional single "Lowdown In Lodi"/"Me And My Guitar" by Freddie King in 1972 with the tracks taken from his Texas Cannonball LP.[15]

Another early twelve-inch single was released in 1973 by soul/R&B musician/songwriter/producer Jerry Williams, Jr. a.k.a. Swamp Dogg. Twelve-inch promotional copies of "Straight From My Heart" were released on his own Swamp Dogg Presents label (Swamp Dogg Presents #501/SDP-SD01, ​33 13 r.p.m.), with distribution by Jamie/Guyden Distribution Corporation. It was manufactured by Jamie Record Co. of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The B-side of the record is blank.[16]

Discotheque era[edit]

The disco twelve-inch record came into being from several key developments:

  • using the instrumental or backing track with the vocal version to create an extended version, and later on combining outtakes, adlibs and other unused material;
  • creating a segued mix of different tracks, length of which was less suited to a 7-inch record;
  • using physically larger and audibly 'hotter' records;
  • progressively increasing the awareness and availability of the format through trade publications, record shops and DJ record pools;
  • releasing the extended version to the public.

Notably, Tom Moulton, and Scepter Records along with its production chief Mel Cheren (later co-founder of dance label West End Records) were involved in several of these pioneering steps due to their artists and strong base uptempo song material, forward-thinking company executives and innovative remixing. The key city associated with these initial movements was New York, but as word spread other large cities such as Los Angeles and Miami contributed to the rise of the music and vinyl format.

First instrumental side[edit]

This was released by Scepter to the flip side of the Ultra High Frequency "We're On The Right Track" seven-inch single in 1973.[17] This enabled DJ's to mix between the vocal and instrumental versions of popular dance records, seguing them so that dancing patrons could enjoy the overall song for longer. A key reason of the time was that very few varispeed turntables existed, so DJ's would only blend into a track with the same drum tempo or BPM, which the instrumental naturally was. This was in comparison to the then occasionally found 'Part 2' B-side of a record, while similar, tended to be the latter half of a lengthy album track, split for seven-inch release, but in many cases this wasn't the full instrumental, so could be more awkward to use.[18] Scepter, from this single onward began to popularise the new format making it industry standard practice, with several other labels following suit, particularly for dance records, and DJs embracing these as a useful tool during their sets.[19][20]

First extended edit[edit]

While not his very first production work (his first mixing effort was the northern soul track by The Carstairs "It Really Hurts Me Girl"[21] in 1973), in early 1974, during his quest to adapt songs beyond the radio-friendly three-minute mark for his mixtapes, soon-to-be famed disco mixer Tom Moulton went to Scepter Records for material. Cheren recalls playing Tom a previously released Scepter single by singer Don Downing called “Dream World”. He had an extra copy of the master tape and let Moulton take it home to experiment. When Moulton brought it back a few days later, Cheren writes, “We were amazed: a so-so record was suddenly snappy, upbeat, and ten times better.” But the biggest surprise, Cheren continues, was something “so radical I could hardly believe my ears.” Moulton had stretched the original track, not even three minutes long, to almost double its time, and in the process debuted what would become known as the disco break.[22] This innovation would earn Scepter a Billboard Trendsetter of the Year award in December 1974 for 'being the first label to make specialized mixes for discotheques'.[23][24]

First segued mixes[edit]

The first was created by Tom Moulton, for the A side of the Gloria Gaynor Never Can Say Goodbye album, released in January 1975 on MGM Records. As a development from his mixtapes, three songs (Honey Bee/Never Can Say Goodbye/Reach Out, I’ll Be There) were not presented as separate pieces of music, but as an uninterrupted, 18-minute-plus, side-long composition optimised for dancing. There were previous albums that had side-long tracks, and medleys which were usually cover versions or re-recordings, but here was a new piece of music composed out of already recorded pieces of music, making it the very first "DJ mix" committed to vinyl, with Moulton admitting it was conceived as a tool for dancefloors.[25]

A followup was the Motown compilation Disc-O-Tech series, released mid May 1975[26] which put together some of the label's most danceable hits onto a number of albums. Disc-O-Tech #2 however, specifically focused on blending a number of their disco releases into a non-stop medley.[27]

Early acetates 10" & 12"[edit]

The first large-format single made specifically for discotheque DJs was a ten-inch acetate used by a mix engineer (José Rodríguez) in need of a Friday-night test copy for a remix created by Tom Moulton in 1974. The song was "I'll Be Holding On" by Al Downing, brother of Don Downing. As no 7-inch (18 cm) acetates could be found, a 10-inch (25 cm) blank was used.[28] Upon completion, Moulton found that such a large disc with only a couple of inches worth of grooves on it made him feel silly wasting all that space. He asked Rodríguez to re-cut it so that the grooves looked more spread out and ran to the normal center of the disc. Rodriguez told him that for it to be viable, the level would have to be increased considerably. Because of the wider spacing of the grooves, not only was a louder sound possible but also a wider overall dynamic range (distinction between loud and soft) as well. This was immediately noticed to give a more favorable, 'hotter' sound for discothèque play. It also meant that these extended versions being created by Moulton could be given to fellow DJs and tested within a nightclub environment to see how well it worked the dancefloor, with adjustments subsequently made to the remix.[4]

Moulton's position as the premiere mixer and "fix it man" for pop singles ensured that this fortunate accident would instantly become industry practice. This would perhaps have been a natural evolution: as dance tracks became much longer than had been the average for a pop song, and the DJ in the club wanted sufficient dynamic range, the format would likely have enlarged from the seven-inch single eventually. Ironically, Moulton's mix of Downing would be eventually released by Chess Records for sale to the general public, but only on a standard-issue 7-inch record for sale in October 1974.[29][30]

Further 10" acetates would be created by Moulton and Rodriguez from late 1974 such as Moment of Truth's "Your Love" on Roulette in October[31] and the aforementioned Don Downing with track 'Dream World'.[32]

"I'll be Holding On" would eventually be cut onto a twelve-inch acetate, as chronicled by its usage on the music compilation A Tom Moulton Mix.[33]

An acetate twelve-inch test pressing single hailed as being a first by Moulton was South Shore Commission "Free Man". Again, it was a disco mix prepared by Moulton, pressed by Rodríguez, with only a handful (around 10) cut and handed out to local DJs.[28] These would have plain white labels, or very sparse printing or typed text. In many cases there would be no logos, and many contained handwritten text only. Test pressings being tried out at discos were reported on in Moulton's weekly column in Billboard during early April 1975.[34][35] Moulton's effort was eventually issued for commercial release by Scepter in June 1975, but on seven-inch vinyl as a 5:35 min mix.[29] Moulton subsequently created a lengthier 7:15 min mix for the album which appeared in late October.[36]

Another record remixed by Moulton was The Philly Devotions "I Just Can't Make It Without You" on Columbia. Mentioned in his Billboard column in mid April as being 'out soon',[37] a known 10" acetate had a date of 8 May 1975, with twelve-inch acetates and promos also appearing at some stage.[38] It eventually was issued commercially in August on seven-inch 45 only.[39]

Atlantic Records announced its discotheque promotion-only Disco Disc seven-inch 45 rpm series in late April/May 1975.[40][41] One of its first titles by The Wiz "Tornado" performed by the 1975 Broadway cast was a single sided twelve-inch acetate pressing, in early March.[42]

A sometimes mentioned candidate for the title is Moment Of Truth "So Much For Love",[43][44] but this was commercially released a year later, the band having been signed to Salsoul Records in June 1976,[45] and the song only appearing in disco charts at the end of July.[46]

Promotion through media and DJs[edit]

Many of the above disco era timelines were driven by the DJ necessity to give a better nightclub dancefloor experience to patrons, and as the scene grew, it began to be chronicled in trade press publications such as Billboard and Record World. Tom Moulton began to write for the former from 26 October 1974 in the Disco Action column[47] (which changed name as time went on), while Vince Aletti wrote Disco File in the latter from November 1974.[48] These over time began to note that the use of these sparse twelve-inch acetates and test pressing runs, already in use internally with record label personnel and Moulton particularly, were being given to some high profile New York DJs and possibly the odd radio DJ. The next step would be press a much larger number of vinyl twelve-inch records for regional/national distribution to DJs, as word got around record labels of their usefulness.

The DJs would increasingly be expected to report back, much like with radio, with what songs worked on their dancefloors to the record company and mixers such as Moulton and others so that a strategic decision would be made whether to further fine tune or remix the music to enhance the reaction, typically a new edit would be repeatedly created, pressed on acetates and supplied until a good reaction was had. Record companies would also supply limited stocks of these dubs or promos to key DJ record shops in New York from 1975 such as Colony Records, Downstairs Records and Melody Song Shops, with reports of sales and interest being fed back to the trade press so that they could report trends in the scene, and record companies as further proof of their marketing and promotional efforts.

Record pools were established, the first in New York in June 1975 for better distribution of pre-release records to bona fide DJs as record labels began to appreciate their role in breaking and selling records.[49][50] A further development began to see the labels tailor the records specifically towards DJs as a result, with for example Scepter Records publicly announcing via both publications that they were to start servicing '12-inch 45s' to DJs in pools and their national promotional mailouts from June 1975. promoting the format earlier in distributor roadshows they hosted in late May, citing a key benefit of high volume levels being maintained with lengthier tracks.[51] Billboard magazine reported that Atlantic Records were the first to issue 12" 33 rpm vinyl promos to DJs in July,[52][53] under the watchful eye of a DJ as their promotions director Doug Riddick, who took up the post in May 1975.[54]

Early vinyl test pressings 12"[edit]

Although primarily pressed for quality control of both the sound and physical attributes before a large run of vinyl is made, when compared to an acetate, test pressings vinyl issues would be far more durable, much more likely to be funded by the record label, potentially would have printed centre labels, and are possibly pressed in larger numbers than acetates to include them in promotional runs if the records were deemed suitable for play. These were also much less likely to have picture sleeves, usually depending instead on a generic cover.

Atlantic followed up the single sided Wiz acetate pressing with a vinyl test pressing containing that and another title from the May '75 Disco Disc series,[40] The Wiz "Tornado" / Hot Chocolate - "Disco Queen",[55] the matrix number similar to the 7-inch Wiz promo, suggesting it was pressed at the same time if not later, possibly to promote said series.

Another early test pressing was Bobby Moore "(Call Me Your) Anything Man", again on Scepter. Twelve-inch acetates for this single were pressed in April 1975,[56] and was subsequently produced as twelve-inch vinyl with typed labels in June.[57][58][59][60] Moulton, now a regular in-house remixer for the label, was again given label credit for the remix. This was released commercially on 7-inch in May 1975.[61]

First wide scale promotional 12"[edit]

A very early disco prototype vinyl 12-inch pressing was a Midland International promo distributed by RCA - this was a Carol Douglas one sided EP with 4 tracks from The Carol Douglas Album. This was issued in mid February 1975 and was subtitled 'Specially Prepared For Disco Use', but it held same length versions of the selected album tracks.[62][63] Therefore, it was more akin to an album sampler, and it reused the catalogue code prefix for RCA promotional LPs of the time, which eventually did get used for true 12-inch singles later that year.

The very first wide-scale record company promotional twelve-inch single according to Moulton (considering his then position with Billboard at the time as disco product reviewer, and that most of the very limited 12-inch records up to this point involved his own remixes), was Frankie Valli "Swearin' To God", issued by Private Stock Records in June 1975 with a 10:32 min running time.[28][64][65] Bob Crewe, co-writer and producer, personally presented 10-inch test pressings to DJs in April 1975 after high pre-release demand.[66] It was then issued commercially as a 7-inch at the end of April/start of May 1975,[67] with a subsequent 12-inch store release appearing much later in 1977, running for 10:15 minutes. The album cut was 10:09 minutes in length. Although Private Stock distributed nationally, these 10 and 12-inch pressings may have been limited to New York DJs only.

Barrabas "Mellow Blow" became the first 33rpm promo to be released in July,[68][69][70] but eventually commercially only on an Atlantic 7" in September. Warner-Spector's Calhoon "(Do You Wanna) Dance, Dance, Dance" had a 10-inch acetate from May,[71][72] given out as a one sided 10-inch vinyl promo in the same month,[73] and as a 12-inch promo in July 1975.[29][74]

At first, these special remixed or extended versions were only available as promotional copies to DJs, either given directly to them or issued by record pools who obtained these from record companies' A&R departments. Examples of these promos,[75] released from spring/summer 1975, include:

Selected promotional vinyl 12" US singles in 1975*
Artist Title Label Release month Notes
Carol Douglas The Carol Douglas Album sampler Midland International February[62][63] 4 track disco EP/LP
The Wiz / Hot Chocolate "Tornado" / "Disco Queen" Atlantic May (7")[40][55] (12" unknown date) Test pressing
Frankie Valli "Swearin' To God" Private Stock April (10")[66] / June[64][65]
Bobby Moore "(Call Me Your) Anything Man" Scepter June[60] Test pressing
Banzaii "Chinese Kung Fu" Scepter June[76]
Calhoon "(Do You Wanna) Dance, Dance, Dance" Warner-Spector May (10")[72] / July[29][74]
Barrabas "Mellow Blow" Atlantic July[68][69][70]
The Eleventh Hour "Hollywood Hot" 20th Century July[77]
Philly Devotions "I Just Can't Make It" Columbia August[78]
The Trammps "Hooked For Life" Atlantic August[79][80]
Ace Spectrum "Keep Holdin' On" Atlantic August[81]
Secrets "(Baby) Save Me" Scepter August[79]
The Chequers "Undecided Love" Scepter September[82]
Touch Of Class "I'm In Heaven" Midland International September[50]
Silver Convention "Always Another Girl" / "Fly, Robin, Fly" Midland International September[83]
Ronnie Spector "You'd Be Good For Me" Tom Cat September[84]
War "Low Rider" United Artists September[84]
The Miracles "Love Machine" Tamla (Motown) September[85]
David Ruffin "Walk Away From Love" Motown September[85]
Soul Train Gang "Soul Train '75" Soul Train September[86]
Natural Order "Jealousy" Sound Of Washington D.C. September[87]
Ernie Bush "Breakaway" Scepter-Contempo October[88][89]
Gary Toms Empire "Drive My Car" PIP/Pickwick October[90]
The Ritchie Family "I Want To Dance" 20th Century October[90]
Vicki Sue Robinson "Never Gonna Let You Go" RCA November[89]
Papa John Creach & The Midnight Sun "Joyce" Buddah November[91][92]
Ralph Carter "Extra Extra" Mercury November[93]
Jimmy James And The Vagabonds "I Am Somebody" Pye November[94]
Gail "Consideration" SMI December[95]
South Shore Commission "Train Called Freedom" Scepter January 1976[96]
Monday After "Merry-Go-Round" Buddah January 1976[92]
Marboo "What About Love" Midland International January 1976[97]

* Not a complete list.

First 12" retail singles[edit]

The first song found on a twelve-inch single commercially issued for public purchase from the disco era onwards was "Ten Percent" by Double Exposure on Salsoul Records in May 1976.[98][99] This was due to the label co-owner Ken Cayre's decision to release the Walter Gibbons remix for dancers who would hear that version in nightclubs but not be satisfied with the shorter versions sold on the 7-inch vinyl or the album. The seven-inch edit had been released a month earlier but sales of this were slow.[100][101] With high interest and sales weeks after the release,[102] Salsoul were presented with Billboard awards at the 1976 Disco Forum event for disco disk sales to consumers and best record label as a result of the push into the marketplace with the format.[103]

The second twelve-inch release was the double artist single Jesse Green "Nice And Slow" / Sweet Music "I Get Lifted" on Scepter/Wand in mid June 1976.[104][105]

Third was a disc containing two George Benson sides "Summertime 2001" / "Theme From Good King Bad" in late June 1976 on CTI Records.[106][107]

Salsoul's second 12-inch record for retail was by Moment Of Truth "So Much For Love" / "Helplessly" released in early July 1976.[108][109]

A clutch of releases including Jakki "Sun... Sun... Sun" and Four Below Zero "My Baby's Got E.S.P.", amongst others on Pyramid/Roulette Records was sold from mid July 1976.[110][105]

Australia[edit]

Two twelve-inch promotional vinyl issues for rock/folk Shelter Records artists were serviced to radio stations in April 1972 by local distributor Tempo Records:[111][112]

J.J. Cale's "Crazy Mama" backed with "Don't Go To Strangers". This was issued with a promotional sticker stating "we have a very BIG single for you". The sides were the same lengths as the versions on his 1971 Naturally album.

Leon Russell's release was likely to be the same as the US release of "It's A Hard Rain's Gonna Fall" / "Me And Baby Jane".

United Kingdom[edit]

The Jamaican reggae and US disco trend also hit London, reggae being popular along with uptempo forms of music such as Motown and northern soul, the seven-inch record being the primary medium in the early 1970s for this material, with the UK following up a little later than the US with 12-inch singles. The reasons were different, the UK jocks did not have the same need to extend records like the US pioneers who wanted longer records for the dancefloor. Although the use of larger temporary singles (primarily 10") started from the Jamaican influence and before (such as the pre-Beatles band The Quarrymen with the one-off "In Spite of All the Danger" in 1958), acetates were also used by the record labels to quality control the eventual product, and not for servicing single songs or exclusive remixes, and then not in the 12-inch format. The usage of the 12-inch vinyl as a medium followed the US promos introduction but was initially seen as a marketing tool to help promote an artist more uniquely. It therefore was not exclusively used for disco songs but included pop artists, however it eventually came into its own in the later 1970s with the lengthened versions of US disco songs being promoted in the UK.[113]

Promo UK 12" releases[edit]

Atlantic Records was an early front runner with two 12-inch promo singles: Ben E. King "Supernatural Thing" backed with Osiris "Warsaw Concerto",[114] along with Herbie Mann "Hijack" b/w Jimmy Castor Bunch "The Bertha Butt Boogie",[115] both at 33 rpm and issued in approximately June 1975 (based on the catalogue numbers used),[116] but rumoured to be as late as October.[115] Robert Palmer "Which Of Us Is The Fool" was released by Island Records also in October 1975.[117] Virgin started a line of 12-inch promos in November 1975, with the first being Ruan O'Lochlainn "Another Street Gang".[118] Brass Construction "Changin'" was promoted around March 1976 by United Artists. A later 12-inch promo issue was a double sider The Moments "Nine Times" / The Rimshots "Do What You Feel" on All Platinum Records via Phonogram in the middle of April 1976,[119][120][121] however both were released commercially and individually on seven-inch 45s only, in April 1976.[122][123] Candi Staton followed with "Young Hearts Run Free" in the middle of May from Warner Bros. These early issues usually containing the original 7-inch edit, It took a little later for lengthened versions to begin appearing, with 1970s UK club DJ Greg Wilson recalling promotional 12-inch product being mailed out from August 1976, Lalo Schifrin "Jaws" being his first one, which was in extended form. This was followed by disco acts such as James Wells, The Originals, Ultrafunk, Mass Production, Deodato and The Undisputed Truth, however some of these were not UK pressed vinyl but US promos sent over to the UK and distributed through club promotions businesses and record company A&R departments.[124] While early releases were 33rpm, the UK labels have notably pressed most of their singles since then at 45 rpm.

First UK 12" retail singles[edit]

The first commercially released twelve-inch vinyl was Ernie Bush "Breakaway" / Banzaii "Chinese Kung Fu" both as Tom Moulton mixes, along with another disc containing The Armada Orchestra "For The Love Of Money" / Ultrafunk "Sting Your Jaws (Part 1)". Bush and the latter two acts had Gerry Shury production involvement, and these two releases were issued by John Abbey's Contempo Records from 8 October 1976, these songs having been previously released in either 7-inch format or as album tracks.[125][126][127] Abbey likely had the nod from Scepter Records about the use of the twelve-inch single format, as both had released all these titles on their labels and cross-licensed the tracks with Moulton mixes. This was closely followed with a single containing re-issues of The Who's "Substitute" with "I'm A Boy" / "Pictures Of Lily" on the flip, all originally from 1966 and 1967 by Polydor Records on 22 October 1976.[128][127]

Later developments[edit]

Close-up shot of a 12-inch (30 cm) single showing the wide grooves

Notable 1970 and 1980s releases making use of the new length opportunities of the format included Donna Summer's "Love To Love You Baby" (16 min 50 seconds), "I Feel Love" (15:45), and Sugarhill Gang's "Rapper's Delight" (15:00). The broad visual spacing of the grooves on the twelve-inch records made it easy for the DJ in locating the approximate area of the "breaks" on the disc's surface in dim club light (without having to listen while dropping and re-dropping the stylus to find the right point). A quick study of any DJs favorite discs will reveal mild wear in the "break points" on the discs' surfaces that can clearly be seen by the naked eye, which further eases the "cueing" task (a club DJs tone-arm cartridge will be heavily weighted and mild wear will seldom spoil the sound quality). Many DJ-only remix services, such as Ultimix and Hot Tracks, issued sets with deliberately visualised groove separations (i.e., the record was cut with narrow and wider spacings that could be seen on the surface, marking the mix points on the often multi-song discs). Motown were one of the first to "eye cue" their 12" disco discs, giving DJs the track's BPM and info on the exact length of the various sections of the song - one of the earliest examples of a record company recognising how important the DJ was to become by making their product more user-friendly. By `79, and very much with the DJ in mind, 12"s such as Diana Ross "The Boss" were being purposely intro'd with mix-friendly drum beats.

Following the lead of the US club DJs, using 12-inch extended versions in the UK as a mixing tool was advocated particularly by James Hamilton of the Record Mirror music weekly paper, with him notably indicating the approximate BPM of late 1970s disco tracks onwards. Increasingly in the 1980s, many pop and even rock artists released twelve-inch singles that included longer, extended, or remixed versions of the actual track being promoted by the single. These versions were frequently labeled with the parenthetical designation "12-inch version", "12-inch mix", "extended remix", "dance mix", or "club mix". before its usage becoming commonplace in the early/mid 1980s developing alongside turntabalism in use for the electro and hip-hop genres, but was regularised with the advent of the late 1980s house music scene. Later musical styles took advantage of this new format and recording levels on vinyl twelve-inch "maxi-singles" have steadily increased, culminating in the extremely loud (or "hot") cuts of drum and bass records of the 1990s and early 2000s.

Many record labels produced mainly twelve-inch singles (in addition to albums) during the 1980s, lots being mostly regular A and B-sides, not remixes. Certain labels such as Factory Records, only ever released a handful of seven-inch singles. One of Factory's resident artists, alternative rock/dance quartet New Order, produced the biggest-selling twelve-inch record ever in the United Kingdom, "Blue Monday", selling about 800,000 copies on the format and over a million copies in total (not counting later remixes). It was somewhat helped by the fact that Factory did not release a seven-inch version of the single until 1988, five years after the single was originally released as a twelve-inch-only release. Besides, the seven-inch version that was released was not the original 1983 version released on twelve-inch, but a re-recording called "Blue Monday 1988". "Blue Monday" came in 76th on the 2002 UK list of all-time best-selling singles.

Maxi-singles[edit]

The term "twelve-inch" usually refers to a vinyl single with one or more extended mixes or remixes of a song. In the mid-to-late 1980s, popular artists often used the twelve-inch format to include extra songs that were not included on albums, just as a seven-inch single often included a B-side song that was not found on full-length albums. CD singles grew in popularity in the 1990s, so the term "maxi-single" became increasingly used for these. Many CD singles contain a number of such songs, in a manner similar to the older EP vinyl format. As advances in compact disc player technology in the 1990s made the CD acceptable for mixing by DJs, CD maxi-singles became increasingly popular for the mixes typically found on vinyl twelve-inch singles. Any given release might include both a CD and a twelve-inch maxi-single, which might or might not have the same tracks.

In the days of the seven-inch single, and especially in R&B releases, the single would occasionally be "flipped" by radio DJs who found the B-side song to be better for airplay than the intended A-side. One noteworthy example is "I'll Be Around", the first of the Spinners' Thom Bell-produced hits for Atlantic Records in the mid-1970s. Around the time twelve-inch releases became a standard for pop records, this practice faded, because of the increase in marketing costs, the reliance on video to sell single releases, and the public's expectation of quality packaging with photo or picture sleeves.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "The Joy of 45 Collecting: Why 45s Sound Better Than LPs". www.classic45s.com. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  2. ^ "Victor Deluxe history" (PDF).
  3. ^ Baker, R. S. (24 September 2019). "Fred Hager tangles with Victor Herbert". The Syncopated Times. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  4. ^ a b Osborne, Richard (17 February 2016). Vinyl: A History of the Analogue Record. Routledge. pp. 155, 156. ISBN 978-1-317-00180-5.
  5. ^ "Victor Program Transcription Records". www.stokowski.org. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  6. ^ "1931 Leopold Stokowski - Philadelphia Orchestra Recordings". www.stokowski.org. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  7. ^ "RCA Program Transcription Album Discography (1931-33)". bsnpubs.com. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  8. ^ Osborne, Richard (17 February 2016). "The 45". Vinyl: A History of the Analogue Record. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-00180-5.
  9. ^ Thompson, Dave. "45s - The Greatest Sound On Earth". The Music Lover's Guide to Record Collecting. Backbeat Books.
  10. ^ See the crucial history of early Jamaican sound systems (scroll down for the English version): [1]
  11. ^ "Buddy Fite - For Once In My Life / Glad Rag Doll". Discogs. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  12. ^ "Buddy Fite - Buddy Fite!". Discogs. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  13. ^ Link, Geoffrey; "Tower Test-Markets 12-Inch Single in Sacramento and L.A."; Billboard; March 14, 1970.[2]
  14. ^ "Leon Russell - It's A Hard Rain's Gonna Fall / Me And Baby Jane". Discogs. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  15. ^ 12" Single: Freddie King - Lowdown In Lodi (1972), retrieved 15 May 2020
  16. ^ "Swamp Dogg - Straight From My Heart". Discogs. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  17. ^ "Ultra High Frequency - We're On The Right Track". Discogs. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  18. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 20. 16 November 1974. "Keepin Up With The Joneses:" the album by the Joneses, has the group's current hit "Sugar Pie Guy" as well as their previous hit "Hey Babe." Both singles,which had part 1 & 2 versions, ....[the DJs] who have played both records sometimes have difficulty in putting them together where they sound as one record.
  19. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 16. 21 December 1974. Spinners are also happy about the flip side having a 4:10 instrumental version of the song.
  20. ^ "Disco File". Record World: 30. 8 March 1975.
  21. ^ "The Carstairs - It Really Hurt Me Girl – Unearthed Sounds". www.unearthedsounds.co.uk. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  22. ^ "Tom Moulton and his extended disco remix forever changed dance music". Wax Poetics. 28 June 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  23. ^ Records, Ace. "Disco Gold". Ace Records. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
  24. ^ "Billboard names 11 Trendsetters - Talent In Action". Billboard: pgs 1, 4. 28 December 1974.
  25. ^ "Tom Moulton". www.redbullmusicacademy.com. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  26. ^ "Disco File". Record World. 17 May 1975.
  27. ^ "Various - Disc-O-Tech #2". Discogs. Retrieved 30 June 2020.
  28. ^ a b c "IT'S MDD | TOM MOULTON". alkent.co.uk. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  29. ^ a b c d Lawrence, Tim (2 February 2004). Love Saves the Day: A History of American Dance Music Culture, 1970-1979. Duke University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-8223-8511-0.
  30. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: pg 20. 9 November 1974.
  31. ^ "Moment Of Truth - Your Love". Discogs. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  32. ^ "Don Downing - Dream World". Discogs. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  33. ^ "Tom Moulton - A Tom Moulton Mix". Discogs. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  34. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 52. 12 April 1975.
  35. ^ "Disco File". Record World: 44. 26 April 1975.
  36. ^ "Club Dialog". Billboard: 47. 27 September 1975.
  37. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 32. 19 April 1975.
  38. ^ "Philly Devotions - I Just Can't Make It (Without You)". Discogs. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  39. ^ Philly Devotions - I Just Can't Make It (Without You), retrieved 6 June 2020
  40. ^ a b c "ATLANTIC'S DISCO DISC". Billboard - A Spotlight On Discomania: D-19. 17 May 1975.
  41. ^ "ATLANTIC'S DISCO DISC". Billboard: 57. 17 May 1975.
  42. ^ "Original Cast "The Wiz" - Tornado". Discogs. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  43. ^ Osborne, Richard (17 February 2016). Vinyl: A History of the Analogue Record. Routledge. p. 155. ISBN 978-1-317-00181-2.
  44. ^ "Tom Moulton Tribute @ Disco-Disco.com". www.disco-disco.com. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  45. ^ "Signings". Billboard: pg 32. 26 June 1976.
  46. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: pg 38. 31 July 1976.
  47. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 22. 26 October 1974.
  48. ^ Aletti, Vince,. The disco files 1973-78 : New York's underground, week by week (Second ed.). New York, NY. ISBN 1-942884-30-3. OCLC 1028843369.CS1 maint: extra punctuation (link) CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  49. ^ "Disco File". Record World: 3. 14 June 1975.
  50. ^ a b "Success Of Young Midland Intl Operation Attributed To Clubs". Billboard: 40. 13 September 1975.
  51. ^ Inc, Nielsen Business Media (14 June 1975). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. p. 3.
  52. ^ "Inside Track". Billboard: 78. 19 July 1975.
  53. ^ "Large And Small Labels Push For Disco Exposure". Billboard: 50. 1 November 1975.
  54. ^ "ExecutiveTurntable". Billboard: 86. 31 May 1975.
  55. ^ a b "Original Cast "The Wiz" / Hot Chocolate - Tornado / Disco Queen". Discogs. Retrieved 6 June 2020.
  56. ^ "Bobby Moore - (Call Me Your) Anything Man". Discogs. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  57. ^ "Bobby Moore - (Call Me Your) Anything Man". Discogs. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  58. ^ Lawrence, Tim (2 February 2004). Love Saves the Day: A History of American Dance Music Culture, 1970-1979. Duke University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-8223-8511-0.
  59. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 16. 7 June 1975.
  60. ^ a b "Disco File". Record World: 98. 14 June 1975.
  61. ^ Bobby Moore [70s] - (Call Me Your) Anything Man, retrieved 17 May 2020
  62. ^ a b "Disco File". Record World: 20. 15 February 1975.
  63. ^ a b "Carol Douglas - The Carol Douglas Album - Specially Prepared For Disco Use". Discogs. Retrieved 29 June 2020.
  64. ^ a b "Newsletter 56 - 1974/75 single and LP releases" (PDF). Four Seasons UK Appreciation Society.
  65. ^ a b "Frankie Valli and the Four Seasons (and connected)-Downloadable Discographies-". www.seasonally.co.uk. Retrieved 2 June 2020.
  66. ^ a b "Disco Action". Billboard. 19 April 1975.
  67. ^ "Disco Action, Top Single Picks". Billboard: pg 20, 54. 3 May 1975.
  68. ^ a b Inc, Nielsen Business Media (2 October 1976). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc. pp. 35, 53.
  69. ^ a b "Barrabas 'Disco Disc' planned by Atlantic". Record World: 291. 19 June 1975.
  70. ^ a b "Inside Track". Billboard: 82. 19 July 1975.
  71. ^ "Calhoon - Dance Dance Dance / Rain 2000". Discogs. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  72. ^ a b "Inside Track". Billboard: 86. 28 June 1975. Calhoon single "Dance Dance Dance" released by Warner Bros. after manager Ron Samuels seeded New York discos with acetate copies
  73. ^ "Disco File". Record World: 27. 10 May 1975.
  74. ^ a b "Disco File". Record World: 30. 5 July 1975.
  75. ^ "12" DISCO RECORDS - 20th CENTURY". www.21centurymusic.com. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  76. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 47. 28 June 1975.
  77. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 28. 5 July 1975.
  78. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 29. 2 August 1975.
  79. ^ a b "Disco Action". Billboard: 51. 16 August 1975.
  80. ^ "Disco File". Record World: 35. 6 September 1975.
  81. ^ "Ace Spectrum's Disco Rendezvous". Record World: 17. 6 September 1975.
  82. ^ "Club Dialog". Billboard: 57. 20 September 1975.
  83. ^ "Single Picks". Billboard: 60. 20 September 1975.
  84. ^ a b "Club Dialog". Billboard: 64. 13 September 1975.
  85. ^ a b "Motown Promotional Album Discography". www.bsnpubs.com. Retrieved 7 June 2020.
  86. ^ Aletti, Vincent (20 September 1975). "Disco File". Record World: 39.
  87. ^ Catalog of Copyright Entries: Third series - Music - June-September 1975. Library of Congress. Copyright Office. 1977. p. 1787.
  88. ^ "Scepter Marketing U.K. Contempo Line". Billboard: 34. 4 October 1975.
  89. ^ a b "Disco File". Record World: 92. 8 November 1975.
  90. ^ a b "Disco File". Record World: 34. 25 October 1975.
  91. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 38. 22 November 1975.
  92. ^ a b "Buddah Records @ Disco-Disco.com". www.disco-disco.com. Retrieved 4 June 2020.
  93. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 39. 15 November 1975.
  94. ^ "Disco Action". Billboard: 30. 29 November 1975.
  95. ^ "Gail - Consideration". Discogs. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  96. ^ "Single Picks". Record World: 12. 24 January 1976.
  97. ^ "Disco File". Record World: 26. 31 January 1976.
  98. ^ "A New 12 -Inch 45 Salsoul Disco Label". Billboard: 3, 38. 15 May 1976.
  99. ^ "Club DJs Blend Cuts For Cos.' Disco Disks". Billboard: 1, 39. 15 May 1976.
  100. ^ "Ken Cayre on the History of Salsoul and Working with Disco's Greatest Remixers". daily.redbullmusicacademy.com. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  101. ^ "Salsoul Records @ Disco-Disco.com". www.disco-disco.com. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  102. ^ "Salsoul 12" Disco Mix a Retail Smash". Record World: 3. 19 June 1976.
  103. ^ "Disco Forum II". Billboard: 36. 9 October 1976.
  104. ^ "Jesse Green / Sweet Music - Nice & Slow / I Get Lifted". Discogs. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  105. ^ a b "New Labels Add 12 -Inch Singles/New Labels Flock To Board 12 -Inch Disk Bandwagon". Billboard: 1, 18. 26 June 1976.
  106. ^ "George Benson - Summertime/2001 / Theme From Good King Bad". Discogs. Retrieved 27 May 2020.
  107. ^ "GEORGE BENSON singing and playing SUMMERTIME / 2001". Billboard: 21. 26 June 1976.
  108. ^ Aletti, Vince (10 July 1975). "Disco File". Record World: 26, 44.
  109. ^ Moulton, Tom (4 July 1976). "Disco Mix". Billboard: 37.
  110. ^ "Top Single Picks". Billboard: 58. 17 July 1976.
  111. ^ Inc, Nielsen Business Media (15 April 1972). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc.
  112. ^ "MILESAGO - Record Labels - Tempo Records". www.milesago.com. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  113. ^ "12 x 12". Electrofunkroots. 5 August 2011. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  114. ^ "Ben E. King / Osiris (15) - Supernatural Thing / Warsaw Concerto". Discogs. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  115. ^ a b "Herbie Mann / The Jimmy Castor Bunch - Hijack / Bertha Butt Boogie Part 1". Discogs. Retrieved 10 June 2020.
  116. ^ "SAM Prefix - Warner Bros / WEA promo and bonus discs - 45cat". www.45cat.com. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
  117. ^ 12" Single: Robert Palmer - Which Of Us Is The Fool (1975), retrieved 8 June 2020
  118. ^ Jones, Mark (2013). The Virgin Discography: the 1970s. The Record Press. pp. 61, 81, 125.
  119. ^ "Nine Times - The Moments / Do What You Feel - The Rimshots - 12". Oxfam’s Online Shop. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  120. ^ "The Moments / The Rimshots - Nine Times / Do What You Feel". Discogs. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  121. ^ "DJ Hot Line". Record Mirror: 21. 24 April 1976.
  122. ^ The Moments - Nine Times, retrieved 18 May 2020
  123. ^ Rimshots - Do What You Feel (Part 1), retrieved 18 May 2020
  124. ^ "Time Capsule - August 1976 | Six Million Steps". www.sixmillionsteps.com. Retrieved 10 May 2020.
  125. ^ 12" Single: Ernie Bush - Breakaway (Disco Mix) (1976), retrieved 10 May 2020
  126. ^ 12" Single: The Armada Orchestra - For The Love Of Money (1976), retrieved 10 May 2020
  127. ^ a b "CONTEMPO". www.7tt77.co.uk. Retrieved 20 May 2020.
  128. ^ Inc, Nielsen Business Media (16 October 1976). Billboard. Nielsen Business Media, Inc.