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- Temüjin is proclaimed Genghis Khan of the Mongol people, founding the Mongol Empire.
- Mukhali is appointed myriarch of the left wing of the newly reorganized Mongol army, and granted immunity for up to 9 breaches of the law.
- Qutb-ud-din Aybak, a Turkish Mameluke from Central Asia, proclaims the Mameluk dynasty in India, the first dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
- Theodore Lascaris is crowned Byzantine Emperor at Nicaea.
- The Livonian Brothers of the Sword, in alliance with the Semigallians, conquer Livs.
- King Valdemar II and Archbishop Andreas Sunonis raid Saaremaa Island, Estonia, forcing the islanders to submit. The Danes build a fortress, but finding no volunteers to man it, they burn it down themselves and leave the island.
Arts and culture
- Sugar, an import from the Muslim world, is mentioned for the first time in a royal English account. Almonds, cinnamon, ginger, and nutmeg are also imported for royal banquets.
- The Order of the Friars Minor is founded by Francis of Assisi.
- A peasant named Thurkhill in England claims that Saint Julian took him on a tour of Purgatory. Thurkhill includes realistic touches including descriptions of Purgatory’s torture chambers, and is believed by Roger of Wendover, one of his society’s leading historians.
- This year, Dominic de Guzmán claims to have received the Holy Rosary from the Virgin Mary.
- The Arab engineer al-Jazari describes many mechanical inventions in his book (title translated to English) The Book of Knowledge of Ingenious Mechanical Devices.
- Béla IV of Hungary (d. 1270)
- Güyük Khan, the third Great Khan of the Mongol Empire (d. 1248)
- Margaret de Quincy, Countess of Lincoln (d. 1266)
- April 7 – Frederick I, Duke of Lorraine
- April – John X, Patriarch of Constantinople (alternative date is May)
- June 4 – Adèle of Champagne, queen of Louis VII of France and regent of France
- Ikhtiyar al-Din Muhammad Bin Bakhtiyar Khalji, founder of Muslim rule in Bengal
- Muhammad of Ghor, Persian conqueror and sultan (b. 1162)
- Jamuqa, Mongol military and political leader
- Yang Wanli, Chinese poet (b. 1127)
- King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 139
- Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.
- King John by Warren. Published by University of California Press in 1961. p. 11