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|Millennium:||1st millennium BC|
- 1 Events
- 1.1 129 BC
- 1.2 128 BC
- 1.3 127 BC
- 1.4 126 BC
- 1.5 125 BC
- 1.6 124 BC
- 1.7 123 BC
- 1.8 122 BC
- 1.9 121 BC
- 1.10 120 BC
- 2 Births
- 3 Deaths
- 4 References
The Empire of Rome
- The Kingdom of Pergamon becomes the Roman Province of Asia upon the defeat of Eumenes III, pretender to the Attalid throne, by M. Perperna.
- C. Sempronius Tuditanus celebrates his triumph over the Iapydes of Illyria.
- Scipio Aemilianus, victor of Carthage is assassinated by his enemies in Rome.
- Battle of Ecbatana: The Seleucid King Antiochus VII Sidetes is defeated and killed by the Parthians under Phraates II, ending Seleucid control over Media or Mesopotamia.
- Having been freed by the Parthians, Demetrius II of Syria recovers the throne of the Seleucid Empire.
- Hipparchus publishes his catalog of stars.
- Total solar eclipse, used by Hipparchus to estimate distance to the moon.
- Cn. Octavius and T. Annius Rufus are this year's consuls
- The Greco-Bactrian kingdom is overrun by the Tokhari.
Arts and sciences
- Tyre successfully revolts from the Seleucid Empire.
- Seleucus V Philometor succeeds his father Demetrius II as king of the Seleucid Empire. Due to his youth, his stepmother Cleopatra Thea acts as regent.
- Cleopatra Thea succeeds to the rule of the Seleucid Empire on the death of Seleucus V. She appoints Antiochus VIII Grypus as co-ruler.
- In Rome, Marcus Fulvius Flaccus proposes the extension of Roman citizenship to the northern Italians, but the Senate reacts by sending him off to deal with disturbances around Massilia. And in so doing commenced the conquest of Transalpine Gaul.
- Fregellae's revolt against Rome begins in Latium. Later the city is captured and destroyed by the Romans.
- Gaius Gracchus elected Roman tribune for the first time. He waited until after his re-election the following year before pushing forward the various civil and agrarian reforms that his brother championed in 133 BC.
- Aix-en-Provence founded under the name of Aquae Sextiae by the Roman consul Sextius Calvinus.
- Quintus Caecilius Metellus conquers the Balearic Islands for Rome, for which he earns the cognomen "Balearicus." He settles 3,000 Roman and Iberian colonists on the islands and founds the cities of Palma and Pollentia.
- Marcus Fulvius Flaccus and Gaius Gracchus become tribunes and propose a number of radical reforms in Rome.
- Gracchus passes a law requiring the state to provide weapons and equipment for the soldiers in the Roman army.
- The Roman Senate passes the motion senatus consultum ultimum, which the consul Lucius Opimius interprets as giving him unlimited power to preserve the Republic. He gathers an armed force of Senators and their supporters to confront Gaius Gracchus. A pitched battle is fought inside Rome, resulting in the death of Gracchus and many of his followers.
- A tribunal is established in Rome that executes 3,000 followers of Gracchus.
- Consul Quintus Fabius Maximus, allied with the Aedui, defeated the Arverni and Allobroges in Transalpine Gaul, thus establishing the province for Rome.
- The finest vintage of Falernian wine, known as the Opimian vintage, was bottled from vines grown on Mt Falernus between Latium and Campania.
- Led by General Huo Qubing, the Chinese defeat the Xiongnu,killing more than 40000 Xiongnu soldiers，including seven xiongnu princes.
- The Teutons and the Cimbri migrate south and west to the Danube valley where they encounter the expanding Roman Republic (approximate date).
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- 129 BC
- 127 BC – Phraates II, king of Parthia
- 124 BC – Artabanus I, king of Parthia
- 121 BC – Gaius Gracchus, Roman tribune
- Salisbury, Joyce (2001). Encyclopedia of Women in the Ancient World. ABC-CLIO. p. 56.