1212

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1212 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1212
MCCXII
Ab urbe condita1965
Armenian calendar661
ԹՎ ՈԿԱ
Assyrian calendar5962
Balinese saka calendar1133–1134
Bengali calendar619
Berber calendar2162
English Regnal year13 Joh. 1 – 14 Joh. 1
Buddhist calendar1756
Burmese calendar574
Byzantine calendar6720–6721
Chinese calendar辛未(Metal Goat)
3908 or 3848
    — to —
壬申年 (Water Monkey)
3909 or 3849
Coptic calendar928–929
Discordian calendar2378
Ethiopian calendar1204–1205
Hebrew calendar4972–4973
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1268–1269
 - Shaka Samvat1133–1134
 - Kali Yuga4312–4313
Holocene calendar11212
Igbo calendar212–213
Iranian calendar590–591
Islamic calendar608–609
Japanese calendarKenryaku 2
(建暦2年)
Javanese calendar1120–1121
Julian calendar1212
MCCXII
Korean calendar3545
Minguo calendar700 before ROC
民前700年
Nanakshahi calendar−256
Thai solar calendar1754–1755
Tibetan calendar阴金羊年
(female Iron-Goat)
1338 or 957 or 185
    — to —
阳水猴年
(male Water-Monkey)
1339 or 958 or 186

Year 1212 (MCCXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Events[edit]

By place[edit]

England[edit]

  • July 10 – The Great Fire: The most severe of several early fires of London burns most of the city to the ground; over 3,000 people die, many of them by drowning in the River Thames. According to a contemporary account: "An awful fire broke out on the Southwark side of London Bridge; while it was raging, a fire broke out at the other end also and so hemmed in the numerous crowds who had assembled to help the distressed. The sufferers, to avoid the flames, threw themselves over the bridge into boats and barges; but many of these sunk, the people crowding into them.".[1]
  • King John (Lackland) impounds the revenue of all prelates appointed by bishops, who have deserted him at his excommunication. He remains on good terms, however, with churchmen who stood by him, including Abbot Sampson, who this year bequeaths John his jewels.[2]

Europe[edit]

  • Spring – After the fall of Argos the Crusaders complete their conquest of the Morea in southern Greece. The city, along with Nauplia, is given to Otho de la Roche, a Burgundian nobleman, as a fief, along with an income of 400 hyperpyron from Corinth.[3] Meanwhile, the Venetians conquer Crete and evict Enrico Pescatore, a Genoese adventurer and pirate, active in the Mediterranean.
  • July 16Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa: The Christian forces of King Alfonso VIII (the Noble) decisively defeat the Almohad army (some 30,000 men) led by Caliph Muhammad al-Nasir. The victory gives a further impulse to the Reconquista but this leaves the Kingdom of Castile in a difficult financial position, as numerous soldiers have to be paid by the treasury.[4]
  • The Children's Crusade is organized. There are probably two separate movements of young people, both led by shepherd boys, neither of which embark for the Holy Land – but both of which suffer considerable hardship.[5]
    • Early Spring – Nicholas leads a group from the Rhineland and crosses the alps into Italy. In August, he arrives with some 7,000 children in Genoa. Nicholas travels to the Papal States where he meets Pope Innocent III.
    • June – The 12-year-old Stephen of Cloyes leads a group across France to Vendôme. Attracting a following of over 30,000 adults and children. After arriving in Marseilles the vast majority returns home to their families.
  • The Teutonic Order builds Bran Castle (or Dietrichstein) in the Burzenland (modern Romania) as a fortified position at the entrance of a mountain pass through which traders can travel. The Teutonic Knights built another five castles, some of them made of stone. Their rapid expansion in Hungary makes the nobility and clergy, who are previously uninterested in those regions, jealous and suspicious.
  • December 9 – The 18-year-old Frederick II is crowned King of the Germans at Mainz. Frederick's authority in Germany remains tenuous, and he is recognized only in southern Germany. In de region of northern Germany, the center of Guelph power, his rival Otto IV continues to hold the imperial power despite his excommunication.[6]

Asia[edit]

  • Autumn – Genghis Khan invades Jin territory and besieges Datong. During the assault, he is wounded by an arrow in his knee and orders a withdrawal for rest and relaxation.[7]

By topic[edit]

Literature[edit]

Religion[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p26
  2. ^ Warren, W. L. (1961). King John. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 169–172.
  3. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp (1994). The Late Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, p. 90. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
  4. ^ Linehan, Peter (1999). "Chapter 21: Castile, Portugal and Navarre". In David Abulafia (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History c.1198-c.1300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–671. ISBN 0-521-36289-X.
  5. ^ Bridge, Antony (1980). The Crusades. London: Granada Publishing. ISBN 0-531-09872-9.
  6. ^ Toch, Michael (1999). "Welffs, Hohenstaufen and Habsburgs". In Abulafia, David; McKitterick, Rosamond (eds.). The New Cambridge Medieval History: c. 1198– c. 1300. Cambridge University Press. p. 381.
  7. ^ Man, John (2011). Genghis Khan: Life, Death and Resurrection, p. 166. ISBN 978-0-553-81498-9.