1214 Richilde

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1214 Richilde
Discovery [1][2]
Discovered byM. F. Wolf
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date1 January 1932
MPC designation(1214) Richilde
Named after
1932 AA · 1930 QD
1961 PC
main-belt · (middle)[4]
background [5]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc86.52 yr (31,602 days)
Aphelion3.0319 AU
Perihelion2.3881 AU
2.7100 AU
4.46 yr (1,629 days)
0° 13m 15.24s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions30.70±12.73 km[6]
33.26±8.39 km[7]
33.651±8.835 km[8]
34.134±0.253 km[9]
34.94±0.50 km[10]
35.22 km (derived)[4]
35.29±3.2 km[11]
36.668±0.575 km[12]
39.58±11.00 km[13]
9.860 h[14]
9.86687±0.00005 h[15]
9.870±0.001 h[16]
0.0517 (derived)[4]
SMASS = Xk[1] · P[9]
10.90[10][11] · 11.03[13] · 11.09[8] · 11.09±0.40[17] · 11.10[4][7][9][14] · 11.20[1][6]

1214 Richilde, provisional designation 1932 AA, is a dark background asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 35 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered by Max Wolf at Heidelberg Observatory in 1932. Any reference of the asteroid's name to a person is unknown.[2][3]


Richilde was discovered on 1 January 1932, by German astronomer Max Wolf at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in southwest Germany.[2] Five nights later, on 6 January 1932, it was independently discovered by Japanese astronomer K. Nakamura at Kwasan Observatory (377), Kyoto.[3] The Minor Planet Center only recognizes the first discoverer.[2] The body's observation arc begins with its first observation as 1930 QD at Uccle Observatory in August 1930, approximately 16 months prior to its official discovery observation at Heidelberg.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Richilde is a non-family asteroid from the main-belt's background population.[5] It orbits the Sun in the central asteroid belt at a distance of 2.4–3.0 AU once every 4 years and 6 months (1,629 days; semi-major axis of 2.71 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.12 and an inclination of 10° with respect to the ecliptic.[1]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the SMASS, Richilde is a Xk-subtype, that transitions from the X-type to the rare K-type asteroids,[1] while the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) characterizes the body as a primitive P-type asteroid.[4][9]

Rotation period and pole[edit]

In the 1990s, a rotational lightcurve of Richilde was first obtained from photometric observations by astronomers using the ESO 1-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. Lightcurve analysis gave a well-defined rotation period of 9.860 hours with a brightness variation of 0.32 magnitude (U=3).[14] In October 2006, a concurring period of 9.870 hours and an amplitude of 0.31 was measured by French amateur astronomer Raymond Poncy (U=3-).[16]

In 2011, a modeled lightcurve using data from the Uppsala Asteroid Photometric Catalogue (UAPC) and other sources gave a period 9.86687 hours, as well as a partial spin axis of (n.a.°, –59.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[15]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Richilde measures between 30.70 and 39.58 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.044 and 0.07.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0517 and a diameter of 35.22 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 11.10.[4]


This minor planet is named after a common German female name. Any reference of this name to a person or occurrence is unknown (AN 247, 153).[3]

Unknown meaning[edit]

Among the many thousands of named minor planets, Richilde is one of 120 asteroids, for which no official naming citation has been published. All of these asteroids have low numbers between 164 Eva and 1514 Ricouxa and were discovered between 1876 and the 1930s, predominantly by astronomers Auguste Charlois, Johann Palisa, Max Wolf and Karl Reinmuth (also see category).[18]


  1. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1214 Richilde (1932 AA)" (2017-03-29 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  2. ^ a b c d e "1214 Richilde (1932 AA)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  3. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1214) Richilde". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1214) Richilde. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 101. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1215. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  4. ^ a b c d e f "LCDB Data for (1214) Richilde". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Nugent, C.; Mainzer, A. K.; Wright, E. L.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; et al. (October 2017). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Three: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 154 (4): 10. arXiv:1708.09504. Bibcode:2017AJ....154..168M. doi:10.3847/1538-3881/aa89ec.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  10. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  11. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Archived from the original on 2016-06-03. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  12. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  13. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  14. ^ a b c Barucci, M. A.; di Martino, M.; Dotto, E.; Fulchignoni, M.; Rotundi, A.; Burchi, R. (June 1994). "Rotational properties of small asteroids: Photoelectric observations of 16 asteroids". Icarus. 109 (2): 267–273. Bibcode:1994Icar..109..267B. doi:10.1006/icar.1994.1092. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  15. ^ a b Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; et al. (June 2011). "A study of asteroid pole-latitude distribution based on an extended set of shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 530: 16. arXiv:1104.4114. Bibcode:2011A&A...530A.134H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116738. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  16. ^ a b Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1214) Richilde". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  17. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 23 January 2018.
  18. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "Appendix 11 – Minor Planet Names with Unknown Meaning". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – Fifth Revised and Enlarged revision. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 927–929. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.

External links[edit]