1223 Neckar

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1223 Neckar
Discovery [1]
Discovered byK. Reinmuth
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date6 October 1931
MPC designation(1223) Neckar
Named after
Neckar[2] (German river)
1931 TG · 1930 MN
1931 TA1 · 1953 FC
A907 VD · A909 BD
A917 XC · A917 YA
main-belt[1][3] · (outer)
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc109.58 yr (40,025 d)
Aphelion3.0395 AU
Perihelion2.6977 AU
2.8686 AU
4.86 yr (1,775 d)
0° 12m 10.44s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
22.783±0.213 km[8]
23.06±0.56 km[9]
24.68±0.55 km[10]
25.736±0.261 km[11]
26.07±0.86 km[12]
27.96 km (derived)[4]
7.763 h[13]
7.80±0.06 h[14]
7.81 h[6]
7.82124 h[7]
7.82401±0.00005 h[15]
7.827±0.0036 h[16]
8.6 h (wrong)[a]
8.78 h (wrong)[17]
Tholen = S[3][4] · S[19]
B–V = 0.840[3]
U–B = 0.405[3]
10.16±0.10 (R)[14]
10.304±0.002 (R)[16]

1223 Neckar, provisional designation 1931 TG, is a stony Koronian asteroid from the outer region of the asteroid belt, approximately 25 kilometers (16 miles) in diameter. Discovered by Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in 1931, the asteroid was named for the German river Neckar. The S-type asteroid has a rotation period of 7.8 hours.[4]


Neckar was discovered on 6 October 1931, by German astronomer Karl Reinmuth at Heidelberg Observatory in southwest Germany.[1] Five nights later, it was independently discovered by Fernand Rigaux at Uccle in Belgium.[2] The Minor Planet Center only acknowledges the first discoverer.[1] The asteroid was observed as A907 VD at Heidelberg in November 1907, extending its observation arc by 24 years prior to its official discovery observation.[1]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Neckar is a core member of the Koronis family (605),[5] a very large outer asteroid family with nearly co-planar ecliptical orbits. The family, named after 158 Koronis, is thought to have been formed at least two billion years ago in a catastrophic collision between two larger bodies. It orbits the Sun in the outer main-belt at a distance of 2.7–3.0 AU once every 4 years and 10 months (1,775 days; semi-major axis of 2.87 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.06 and an inclination of 3° with respect to the ecliptic.[3]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen classification, Neckar is a common stony S-type asteroid.[3] It has also been characterized as an S-type by Pan-STARRS.[19]

Rotation period[edit]

Best rated rotational lightcurve of Neckar gave a rotation period of 7.763 and 7.81 hours with a brightness variation of 0.18 and 0.45 magnitude, respectively (U=3/3).[6][13] Photometric observations taken by Richard Binzel and Ed Tedesco in the 1970s and 1980s, however, gave a longer period and are now considered incorrect (U=0/0).[4][17][a]

Two lightcurves in the R-band with a period of 7.80 and 7.8273 hours (Δ0.21/0.28 mag) were also obtained at the Palomar Transient Factory in 2010 and 2014, respectively (U=2/2).[14][16] Neckar's spin axes has been determined several times. Best rated result from a group lead by Polish astronomers gave two poles at (70.0°, 45.0°) and (225.0°, 42.0°) in ecliptic coordinates.[13]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Neckar measures between 22.783 and 26.07 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo between 0.146 and 0.201.[8][9][10][11][12] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link adopts an albedo of 0.123 obtained by Morrison in the 1970s,[18] and derives a diameter of 27.96 kilometers using an absolute magnitude of 10.66.[4]


This minor planet was named after the river Neckar, running through the southwestern parts of Germany and in particular through the city of Heidelberg, location of the discovering observatory. The river origins in the Black Forrest and flows into the Rhine river. Naming citation was first mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 113).[2]


  1. ^ a b Tedesco (1979) web: rotation period 8.6 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.45 mag. Summary figures for (1223) Neckar at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL).


  1. ^ a b c d e "1223 Neckar (1931 TG)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1223) Neckar". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1223) Neckar. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 102. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1224. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1223 Neckar (1931 TG)" (2017-06-02 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (1223) Neckar". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Asteroid 1223 Neckar – Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 26 October 2019.
  6. ^ a b c Slivan, Stephen M.; Binzel, Richard P. (December 1996). "Forty-eight New Rotation Lightcurves of 12 Koronis Family Asteroids". Icarus. 124 (2): 452–470. Bibcode:1996Icar..124..452S. doi:10.1006/icar.1996.0222.
  7. ^ a b Slivan, Stephen M.; Binzel, Richard P.; Crespo da Silva, Lucy D.; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Lyndaker, Mariah M.; Krco, Marko (April 2003). "Spin vectors in the Koronis family: comprehensive results from two independent analyses of 213 rotation lightcurves". Icarus. 162 (2): 285–307. Bibcode:2003Icar..162..285S. CiteSeerX doi:10.1016/S0019-1035(03)00029-0.
  8. ^ a b Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  9. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 October 2019. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  10. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8.
  11. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. (catalog)
  12. ^ a b c d Hasegawa, Sunao; Müller, Thomas G.; Kuroda, Daisuke; Takita, Satoshi; Usui, Fumihiko (April 2013). "The Asteroid Catalog Using AKARI IRC Slow-Scan Observations". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 65 (2): 11. arXiv:1210.7557. Bibcode:2013PASJ...65...34H. doi:10.1093/pasj/65.2.34.
  13. ^ a b c Michalowski, T.; Pych, W.; Berthier, J.; Kryszczynska, A.; Kwiatkowski, T.; Boussuge, J.; et al. (November 2000). "CCD photometry, spin and shape models of five asteroids: 225, 360, 416, 516, and 1223". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 146 (3): 471–479. Bibcode:2000A&AS..146..471M. doi:10.1051/aas:2000282.
  14. ^ a b c Chang, Chan-Kao; Lin, Hsing-Wen; Ip, Wing-Huen; Prince, Thomas A.; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; Levitan, David; et al. (December 2016). "Large Super-fast Rotator Hunting Using the Intermediate Palomar Transient Factory". The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 227 (2): 13. arXiv:1608.07910. Bibcode:2016ApJS..227...20C. doi:10.3847/0067-0049/227/2/20.
  15. ^ Hanus, J.; Durech, J.; Broz, M.; Warner, B. D.; Pilcher, F.; Stephens, R.; et al. (June 2011). "A study of asteroid pole-latitude distribution based on an extended set of shape models derived by the lightcurve inversion method". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 530: 16. arXiv:1104.4114. Bibcode:2011A&A...530A.134H. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201116738.
  16. ^ a b c Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75.
  17. ^ a b c Binzel, R. P. (October 1987). "A photoelectric survey of 130 asteroids". Icarus. 72 (1): 135–208. Bibcode:1987Icar...72..135B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(87)90125-4. ISSN 0019-1035.
  18. ^ a b Morrison, D.; Zellner, B. (December 1978). "Polarimetry and radiometry of the asteroids". In: Asteroids. (A80-24551 08-91) Tucson: 1090–1097. Bibcode:1979aste.book.1090M.
  19. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007.

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