122d Fighter Wing
||This article includes a list of references, related reading or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. (August 2014)|
|122d Fighter Wing|
An Indiana Air National Guard Airmen with the 122d Fighter Wing at Fort Wayne Air National Guard Station prepares a Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II, “Warthog” for flight
|Branch||Air National Guard|
|Role||Close Air Support|
|Part of||Indiana Air National Guard|
|Garrison/HQ||Fort Wayne Air National Guard Station, Indiana|
|Tail code||"IN" Indiana|
|122d Fighter Wing emblem|
The 122d Fighter Wing (122 FW sometimes 122d) is a unit of the Indiana Air National Guard, stationed at Fort Wayne Air National Guard Station, Fort Wayne, Indiana. If activated to federal service, the wing is gained by the United States Air Force Air Combat Command.
- 1 Units
- 2 History
- 3 References
- 4 External links
- 163rd Operations Group (Tail code formerly "FW" (F-16), now "IN" (A-10))
- 122nd Maintenance Group
- 122nd Mission Support Group
- 122nd Medical Group
World War II
Trained in the Mid-Atlantic United States with P-40 Warhawks, 1943. While in training also used for air defense of Philadelphia area. Moved to England during September and October 1943, they were equipped with P-47 Thunderbolts and began operations on 20 December 1943 and served in combat with Eighth and later, Ninth Air Forces until V-E Day.
Attached to the Eighth Air Force, and engaged in escort work until April 1944 to cover the operations of bombers that the AAF sent against targets on the continent, they dive-bombed marshalling yards and airfields during April to help prepare for the invasion of Normandy. They continued attacks on enemy communications and flew escort missions during May. They escorted troop carriers over the Cotentin Peninsula on 6 and 7 June, and attacked bridges, rail lines and trains, vehicles, and troop concentrations during the remainder of the month.
Received first DUC for operations from 24 December 1944 to 2 January 1945 when the group not only supported Seventh Army by attacking rail lines and rolling stock, vehicles, buildings, and artillery, but also destroyed numerous fighter planes during a major assault by the German Air Force against Allied airfields. Received second DUC for 19–20 March 1945, a period in which the 358th destroyed and damaged large numbers of motor transports and thus hampered the evacuation of German forces that were withdrawing from the area west of the Rhine. Received third DUC for performance between 8 and 25 April 1945 when the group attacked enemy airfields in the region of Munich and Ingolstadt, engaged the enemy in aerial combat, and supported advancing ground forces by attacking such targets as motor transports, tanks, locomotives, guns, and buildings. Received fourth citation, the French Croix de Guerre with Palm, for assisting in the liberation of France.
Reassigned to Second Air Force in July 1945 and programmed for deployment to Okinawa to take part in planned invasion of Japan. Equipped with long-range P-47N Thunderbolt and began training until Japan surrendered ending the Pacific War.
Inactivated on 7 November 1945.
Indiana Air National Guard
The wartime 358th Fighter Group was re-designated as the 122nd Fighter Group, and was allotted to the Indiana Air National Guard, on 24 May 1946. It was organized at Stout Field, Indianapolis, and was extended federal recognition on 9 December 1946 by the National Guard Bureau. The 122nd Fighter Wing was bestowed the lineage, history, honors, and colors of the 358th Fighter Group. The squadron was equipped with F-51D Mustangs and was allocated to the Tenth Air Force, Continental Air Command.
The 122nd Fighter Group was assigned the Indiana ANG 163rd Fighter Squadron at Indianapolis and the 113th Fighter Squadron at Terre Haute. Support units activated were the 122nd Headquarters, 122nd Material Squadron (Maintenance), 122nd Combat Support Squadron, and the 122nd USAF Dispensary.
Its mission was the air defense of Indiana. The 113th Fighter Squadron flew training missions primarily over the northern part of Indiana, while the 163rd Fighter Squadron operated from Indianapolis south to the Ohio River border with Kentucky.
During the postwar years, the Air National Guard was almost like a flying country club and a pilot could often show up at the field, check out an aircraft and go flying. However, these units also had regular military exercises that kept up proficiency and in gunnery and bombing contests they would often score better than full-time USAF units.
Korean War federalization
With the surprise invasion of South Korea on 25 June 1950, and the regular military's complete lack of readiness, most of the Air National Guard was federalized - placed on active duty. The 163rd Fighter Squadron and its parent 122nd Fighter Group were federalized on 10 February 1951.
With the federalization, the Air Force established the 122nd Fighter-Interceptor Wing on 10 February, placing the re-designated 122nd Fighter Group under the new wing as a subordinate operations group. Support groups to the new wing were the 122nd Air Base Group, an expansion of the 122nd Combat Support Squadron; 122nd Maintenance and Supply Group, an expansion of the 122nd Material Squadron (Maintenance), and the 122nd Medical Group, an expansion of the 122nd USAF Dispensary. The 122nd FIW was assigned to the Eastern Air Defense Force, Air Defense Command. Its mission was the air defense of Indiana and the upper Midwest.
The 163rd Fighter-Interceptor Group consisted of the Indiana ANG 163rd Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at Indianapolis and the 113th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at Terre Haute. The squadrons were re-equipped with very long range (VLR) F-51H Mustangs that were developed during World War II for long distance B-29 Superfortress bomber escort missions in the Pacific Theater.
On 1 May, the 113th FIS was dispersed to Scott AFB, Illinois and the 163rd FIS to Sioux City MAP, Iowa; the 122nd FIW was transferred to the ADC Central Air Defense Force. Now assigned for the air defense of the Central United States, the squadrons flew interception missions for ADC. The 122nd FIW/FIG were inactivated on 6 February 1952, the squadron being reassigned to the 31st Air Division. Its period of federalization ended, all state units were returned to Ohio and Indiana state control. The 122nd Fighter-Interceptor Wing was allotted to the Indiana Air National Guard, and was federally recognized by the National Guard Bureau. It remained in control of the 122nd FIG at Stout Field, Indianapolis.
Air defense mission
The wing was re-formed at Baer Field, Fort Wayne, and continued to fly the F-51H Mustangs, returning to its pre-federalization air defense mission of Indiana. With the end of the line for the Mustang in USAF service, the United States Air Force, in an effort to upgrade to an all jet fighter force, required Air National Guard Air Defense Command units to upgrade to jet-powered aircraft. In July 1954 the Mustangs were retired and the squadron was re-equipped with F-80C Shooting Star jets that had seen combat in the Korean War. In March 1956, conversion to refurbished and reconditioned F-86A Sabres commenced, and in April 1958 new F-84F Thunderstreaks were received.
In July 1959, the 163rd was designated as a Tactical Fighter Squadron (Special Delivery), with a mission of the delivery of Tactical nuclear weapons. It should be noted that although the 163rd trained for the delivery of tactical nuclear weapons, it never had any actual nuclear weapons on hand, nor did the base at Fort Wayne ever had nuclear weapon storage facilities. In 1959 and 1960 the squadron participated in exercises Dark Cloud and Pine Cone III, the latter taking place at Congaree AFB, South Carolina. In the exercises, the squadron practiced delivery of tactical nuclear weapons in the fictitious country of "North Saladia".
1961 Berlin Crisis
On 1 October 1961 the 163rd and the 122nd Tactical Fighter Wing was federalized and ordered to active service as part of Operation Tack Hammer, the United States response to the 1961 Berlin Crisis. The activated 122nd Tactical Fighter Wing consisted of the 163rd TFS, the 113th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron at Terre Haute and the Ohio ANG 112th Tactical Fighter Squadron at Toledo Express Airport.
Due to DOD budget restrictions, the 122nd TFW was instructed to deploy only a portion of its total strength and only the 163rd Tactical Fighter Squadron was deployed to Chambley-Bussières Air Base, France, with the other two squadrons being on active duty at their home stations, ready to reinforce the 163rd if necessary.
On 6 November the 26 F-84F Thunderstreaks arrived at Chambley, with the wings support aircraft (C-47 and T-33A's) arriving by mid-November. Due to its reduced force structure, the wing was designated the 7122nd Tactical Wing while in France. By 1 December the ground support units arrived and the 7122nd prepared for an estimated overseas deployment of 10 months.
Rotations of Air National Guard pilots from the stateside squadrons in Indiana was performed to train them in local flying conditions in Europe. This allowed the 163rd to maintain 100 percent manning and also to relieve the boredom of the national guard pilots on active duty in CONUS and kept them connected to the overseas part of the Wing.
The mission of the 7122nd was to support Seventeenth Air Force and various NATO exercises in Europe, flying up to 30 sorties a day exercising with Seventh Army units in West Germany. NATO exchanges with the West German 32nd Fighter-Bomber Wing occurred in April 1962 to increase understanding of NATO air integration and terminology.
By April, the Berlin Crisis appeared to be settled and the Kennedy Administration was interested in saving money on this emergency call-up of national guard units. On 7 June the 163rd was directed to return to CONUS with all personnel, however the aircraft and equipment were to remain at Chambley.
The support C-47 and T-33s were flown back to Indiana, and in July the Air National Guardsmen of the 122 TFW/163 TFS returned to CONUS. On 16 July the 7122nd Tactical Wing was discontinued with its F-84F aircraft being turned over to the new 366th Tactical Fighter Wing. The Guardsmen were released from active duty and returned to state control, 31 August 1962.
Tactical Air Command
After the Berlin Federalization, the 113th transferred its 25 F-84Fs to the active-duty USAF to fill gaps in TAC Wings; the aircraft being temporally replaced by RF-84Fs from the 363rd Tactical Reconnaissance Wing at Shaw AFB, South Carolina that was upgrading to the RF-101 Voodoo. The squadron flew the RF-84F until May 1964 to maintain proficiency but did not train in photo-reconnaissance. Re-equipped with F-84Fs the squadron continued normal peacetime training throughout the 1960s. Individual squadron members volunteered for duty during the Vietnam War, however the 163rd was not federalized in 1968 as the F-84Fs were not considered front line combat aircraft.
In June 1971, the unit converted to the F-100 Super Sabre as a result of the American draw-down from the Vietnam War, the squadron receiving former combat veteran aircraft. In 1976, the unit participated in its first Red Flag Exercise and also deployed overseas to RAF Lakenheath, England.
The F-4C Phantom II aircraft arrived on 18 November 1979, and the Tail Code "FW" (Fort Wayne) was adopted by the 122nd TFW. The unit flew this new aircraft to Balikesir Air Base, Turkey in 1983 for exercise "Coronet Crown," and once again in 1986 for exercise "Coronet Cheroke". In 1986 the F-4Cs were replaced with more up-to-date F-4E Phantom IIs. In 1989, the squadron again deployed to Southwest Asia for exercise "Coronet Brave" in conjunction with "Bright Star". The unit continued its standard of excellence by supporting Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm with deployments to Saudi Arabia by the Security Police, January through June 1991, and to Tyndall Air Force Base, Florida, by the Tactical Hospital in September/October 1991.
The squadron started receiving their first F-16C/D Fighting Falcon aircraft in 1991. These were of the block 25 type, replacing the venerable F-4E in the air defense and attack roles with the retirement of the Phantom. The transition process was quite fast since the first F-16s arrived in October 1991 and the last F-4 flight was on 21 January 1992. The first four F-16Cs were from the 50th Tactical Fighter Wing, Hahn Air Base, Germany. Twenty additional aircraft were received: twelve more from Hahn Air Base, seven from 363rd Fighter Wing, Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina, and one from the 184th Fighter Group, McConnell Air Force Base, Kansas, when the 184th converted to B-1B Lancer bombers.
Air Combat Command
In 1992 with the end of the Cold War, Tactical Air Command was inactivated and the Air Force reorganized its combat forces, with Air Combat Command (ACC) being established on 1 June as a successor organization to TAC and Strategic Air Command (SAC). The Air National Guard was assigned a new priority, taking over the Air Defense Mission of Air Defense, Tactical Air Command (ADTAC), which had replaced Aerospace Defense Command in 1979.
In the case of the 163rd, this was already the case in the F-4 and even in the F-100 days. In the early days of F-16 operations the emphasis was more on air defense than on the attack role. With the absence of modern targeting pods the deployment of air-to-ground weapons was somewhat hampered since other units had to be called upon to perform the target designation.
In February 1993, the 122nd FW successfully completed its first overseas deployment with the F-16C aircraft. The exercise, "Coronet Avenger," took place in Egypt, and served as a training exercise, testing the capability of the unit to deploy and operate at an overseas location.
Fiscal Year 1994 saw the 122nd FW participate in various humanitarian relief efforts throughout the world. Members of the base Hospital participated in Operation Sea Signal, which is the Air National Guard's effort to support the refugees at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba.
In mid-1996, the Air Force, in response to budget cuts, and changing world situations, began experimenting with Air Expeditionary organizations. The Air Expeditionary Force (AEF) concept was developed that would mix Active-Duty, Reserve and Air National Guard elements into a combined force. Instead of entire permanent units deploying as "Provisional" as in the 1991 Gulf War, Expeditionary units are composed of "aviation packages" from several wings, including active-duty Air Force, the Air Force Reserve Command and the Air National Guard, would be married together to carry out the assigned deployment rotation.
During Fiscal Year 1996, the 122nd FW was involved in a critical series of rigorous exercises designed to determine our operational readiness in mobility and war fighting capabilities. The 122nd FW met every challenge and completed the Operational Readiness Inspection in September 1996 with outstanding results.
In 1997 the name of the squadron was changed from Marksmen to Blacksnakes. This was purely a politically-initiated change. The word ‘Marksmen’ was perceived to somehow reflect an aggressive undertone which some in state government found offensive. Although this wasn’t the case at all, the squadron decided to change its name into ‘Blacksnakes’. The tail scheme of the aircraft was changed accordingly.
In 2005 the squadron introduced a reconnaissance asset with the Theater Airborne Reconnaissance System (TARS) coming available to the unit. The 163rd FS was one of a few ANG units to fly with this reconnaissance pod during both of their deployments in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
In 2008, after having flown for 17 years with the block 25 aircraft, a number of those came to the end of their operational lifespan. It was therefore decided that the aircraft of the 163rd FS were to be replaced with more modern examples. More modern is quite relative since the aircraft they received were Block 30 F-16C/Ds manufactured between 1987 and 1989. These models were mainly coming from the Michigan Air National Guard 107th Fighter Squadron which was transitioning to the A-10 Thunderbolt II at the time. With the upgrade to the Block 30 aircraft, the tail code of the 163rd was changed from "FW" (Fort Wayne) to "IN" (Indiana) in 2009 when the 181st Fighter Wing at Hulman Field became a non-flying unit. However, only a few of the F-16s were re-coded.
In 2009 – the year the unit honored its predecessor unit – the 358th FG – with an heritage jet – it was decided that the squadron was to retire their 20-year-old F-16s and become an A-10 Thunderbolt II squadron. The conversion happened in 2010.
- Constituted as 358th Fighter Group on 20 December 1942
- Activated on 1 January 1943
- Inactivated on 7 November 1945
- Re-designated: 122nd Fighter Group and allocated to Indiana ANG on 24 May 1946
- Extended federal recognition on 9 December 1946
- Federalized and ordered to active service on: 10 February 1951
- Established as 122nd Fighter-Interceptor Wing, extended federal recognition and activated on 10 February 1951
- Group re-designated as 122nd Fighter-Interceptor Group and assigned as subordinate unit
- Inactivated on 7 February 1952
- Released from active duty and returned to Indiana state control, 1 November 1952
- Re-activated on 1 November 1952
- Re-designated: 122nd Tactical Fighter Wing, 1 July 1954
- Group re-designated 122nd Tactical Fighter Group
- Re-designated: 122nd Tactical Fighter Wing (Special Delivery), 1 July 1959
- Group re-designated 122nd Tactical Fighter Group (Special Delivery)
- Federalized and ordered to active service on: 1 October 1961
- Operated as: 7122nd Tactical Wing (Special Delivery), 1 October 1961-31 August 1962
- Released from active duty and returned to Indiana state control, 31 August 1962
- 122nd Tactical Fighter Group inactivated 30 June 1974.
- Re-designated: 122nd Fighter Wing, 16 March 1992-Present
- Group re-activated and re-designated 122nd Operations Group
- I Fighter Command, 1 January–September 1943
- Attached to: Philadelphia Fighter Wing, 28 April–September 1943
- Attached to: VIII Fighter Command, 20 October 1943
- Attached to: IX Tactical Air Command, 1 August 1944
- Attached to: IX Tactical Air Command, 1 October 1944
- XIX Tactical Air Command, 16 January–July 1945
- Second Air Force, 3 August – 7 November 1945
- 66th Fighter Wing, 9 December 1946
- 55th Fighter Wing, 7 December 1947
- Indiana Air National Guard, 31 October 1950
- Eastern Air Defense Force, Air Defense Command, 10 February 1951
- Central Air Defense Force, Air Defense Command, 1 December 1951 – 7 February 1952
- Indiana Air National Guard, 1 November 1952
- Gained by: Eastern Air Defense Force, Air Defense Command
- Gained by: Tactical Air Command, 1 July 1954
- Ninth Air Force, 1 October 1961
- Attached to Seventeenth Air Force, 1 October 1961-31 August 1962
- Indiana Air National Guard, 1 September 1962
- 122nd Fighter-Interceptor (later Tactical Fighter) Group, 10 February 1951 – 30 June 1974
- Re-designated: 163rd Operations Group, 16 March 1992-Present
- 112th Fighter (later Fighter-Interceptor, Tactical Fighter) Squadron, 9 December 1946 – 30 September 1962 (Ohio ANG)
- 113th Fighter (later Fighter-Interceptor, Tactical Fighter) Squadron, 9 December 1946 – 30 September 1962 (GSU at Terre Haute, IN)
- 163rd Fighter (later Fighter-Interceptor, Tactical Fighter, Fighter) Squadron, 9 December 1946 – Present
- 365th Fighter Squadron: 1 January 1943 – 7 November 1945
- 366th Fighter Squadron: 1 January 1943 – 7 November 1945
- 367th Fighter Squadron: 1 January 1943 – 7 November 1945
- Maurer, Maurer (1983). Air Force Combat Units Of World War II. Maxwell AFB, Alabama: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-89201-092-4.
- Johnson, David C. (1988), U.S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields (ETO), D-Day to V-E Day; Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center, Maxwell AFB, Alabama.
- Rogers, B. (2006). United States Air Force Unit Designations Since 1978. ISBN 1-85780-197-0
- Cornett, Lloyd H. and Johnson, Mildred W., A Handbook of Aerospace Defense Organization 1946 - 1980, Office of History, Aerospace Defense Center, Peterson AFB, CO (1980).
- 122http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/agency/usaf/122fw.htmd FW @ Globalsecurity.org
- 122nd FW unit history page
- 163rd Fighter Squadron @ F-16.net
- McLaren, David. Republic F-84 Thunderjet, Thunderstreak & Thunderflash: A Photo Chronicle. Atglen, PA: Schiffer Military/Aviation History, 1998. ISBN 0-7643-0444-5.