1231

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Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries:
Decades:
Years:
1231 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1231
MCCXXXI
Ab urbe condita1984
Armenian calendar680
ԹՎ ՈՁ
Assyrian calendar5981
Balinese saka calendar1152–1153
Bengali calendar638
Berber calendar2181
English Regnal year15 Hen. 3 – 16 Hen. 3
Buddhist calendar1775
Burmese calendar593
Byzantine calendar6739–6740
Chinese calendar庚寅(Metal Tiger)
3927 or 3867
    — to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
3928 or 3868
Coptic calendar947–948
Discordian calendar2397
Ethiopian calendar1223–1224
Hebrew calendar4991–4992
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1287–1288
 - Shaka Samvat1152–1153
 - Kali Yuga4331–4332
Holocene calendar11231
Igbo calendar231–232
Iranian calendar609–610
Islamic calendar628–629
Japanese calendarKangi 3
(寛喜3年)
Javanese calendar1140–1141
Julian calendar1231
MCCXXXI
Korean calendar3564
Minguo calendar681 before ROC
民前681年
Nanakshahi calendar−237
Thai solar calendar1773–1774
Tibetan calendar阳金虎年
(male Iron-Tiger)
1357 or 976 or 204
    — to —
阴金兔年
(female Iron-Rabbit)
1358 or 977 or 205
Simon de Montfort (c. 1208–1265)

Year 1231 (MCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Events[edit]

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]

England[edit]

Levant[edit]

  • Autumn – Frederick II appoints Marshal Richard Filangieri as his imperial legate, and sends an expeditionary army of mostly Lombards for the defense of Jerusalem. He gathers some 600 knights, 100 "sergeants-at-arms", 700 armed infantrymen, and 3,000 marines. The army is supported by 32 war-galleys.[4]
  • War of the Lombards: Richard Filangieri sails for Beirut, where the town is handed over to him. He occupies Sidon and Tyre – while other Lombard forces appear before Acre. At Acre, Filangieri summons a meeting of the High Court and shows letters from Frederick II appointing him as ambassador (baili).[5]

China[edit]

  • April 9 – A huge fire breaks out at night in the southeast of Hangzhou during the Song Dynasty. Fighting the flames is difficult due to limited visibility. When the fires are extinguished, it is discovered that an entire district of the city, some 10,000 houses has been consumed by the flames.

Mongol Empire[edit]

  • August – Ögedei Khan orders the invasion of Korea. A Mongol army crosses the Yalu River and quickly secures the surrender of the border town of Uiju. The Mongols are joined by Hong Bok-won, a Goryeo general, who takes their side with his subordinates numbering some 1500 families.[6]
  • Siege of Kuju: Mongol forces besiege the city of Kuju. They deploy assault teams who man siege towers and scale ladders. Despite the fact the Goryeo army is heavily outnumbered, the garrison refuses to surrender.

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

Births[edit]

Deaths[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rashdall, Hastings (1895). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Clarendon Press. p. 85. Retrieved November 20, 2016.
  2. ^ Peter Linehan (1999). "Chapter 21: Castile, Portugal and Navarre". In David Abulafia (ed.). The New Cambridge Medieval History c.1198-c.1300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–673. ISBN 0-521-36289-X.
  3. ^ Hywel Williams (2005). Cassell's Chronology of World History, p. 138. ISBN 0-304-35730-8.
  4. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 164. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  5. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 165. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  6. ^ Pirozhenko, Oleg (2005). Political Trends of Hong Bog Won Clan in the Period of Mongol Domination, p. 240. International Journal of Korean History.