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|1231 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1231 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||1984|
|Balinese saka calendar||1152–1153|
|English Regnal year||15 Hen. 3 – 16 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar||庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)|
3927 or 3867
— to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
3928 or 3868
|- Vikram Samvat||1287–1288|
|- Shaka Samvat||1152–1153|
|- Kali Yuga||4331–4332|
|Japanese calendar||Kangi 3|
|Minguo calendar||681 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1773–1774|
1357 or 976 or 204
— to —
1358 or 977 or 205
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1231.|
- April 9 – After a bizarre weather phenomena of yellowish clouds and dust chokes the air around Hangzhou, Song Dynasty, China, obscuring the sky and sun, a fire breaks out at night in the southeast of the city, which continues into the next day. Fighting the flames is difficult due to limited visibility. When the fires are extinguished, it is discovered that an entire district of some 10,000 houses in the southeast of the city were consumed by the flames.
- Mongol troops cross the Yalu River into Korea, then under the Goryeo Kingdom.
- Italy: Emperor Frederick II promulgates the Constitutions of Melfi (also known as Liber Augustalis), a collection of laws for Sicily, as well as the edict of Salerno, regulating the exercise of medicine and separating the professions of physician and apothecary.
- Llywelyn the Great launches a campaign against the Norman lordships in Wales.
- Spain: The Castillans reconquer the city of Quesada.
- March 17 – Emperor Shijō of Japan (d. 1242)
- Guo Shoujing, Chinese astronomer and mathematician
- John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey (d. 1304)
- Yolanda of Vianden, prioress (d. 1283)
- Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Wigmore (d. 1282)
- April 6 – William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke
- June 13 – Anthony of Padua, Portuguese saint (b. 1195)
- August 28 – Eleanor of Portugal, Queen of Denmark (b. c. 1211)
- November 6 – Emperor Tsuchimikado of Japan (b. 1196)
- November 17 – Saint Elizabeth of Hungary, Hungarian princess and saint (b. 1207)
- Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi, Abbasid Arab physician and traveller
- Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu, last ruler of the Khwarezmian Empire
- Rashdall, Hastings (1895). The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages. Clarendon Press. p. 85. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- Peter Linehan (1999). "Chapter 21: Castile, Portugal and Navarre". In David Abulafia. The New Cambridge Medieval History c.1198-c.1300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 668–673. ISBN 0-521-36289-X.