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Louis IX of France ends the unsuccessful Seventh Crusade.
Year 1254 (MCCLIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.
- June 12 – The city of Alkmaar obtains city rights from the count of Holland, William II.
- November 1 – Edward Plantagenet (the future Edward I of England, aged 15) marries Eleanor of Castile (aged c. 13), at the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos. His father Henry III has demanded the marriage, in exchange for ending the war with her brother Alfonso X of Castile.
- In England, an important step in the evolution of the Parliament and Peerage occurs, as lesser barons are replaced, on the King's Council, by elected representatives from shires and cities.
- Pope Innocent IV excommunicates Conrad IV of Germany and Rudolph I of Germany (who is later elected Holy Roman Emperor).
- The Danish city of Copenhagen receives its city charter.
- The Swedish city of Malmö is founded.
- Danylo of Halych, prince of Halych-Wolyn Rus, is crowned a king. The kingdom of Rus (Ruthenia Minor, Halych-Wolyn) is founded.
- As part of an offensive against usury in north-western Europe, Pope Innocent IV relieves the city of Beauvais from its obligations to its creditors.
- ^ Vis, G.N.M. (1994). Oud en arm. Hervormde bejaardenzorg in Alkmaar, 1744-1994. Hilversum: Verloren. p. 16. ISBN 90-6550-502-4.
- ^ Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.