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|1254 by topic|
|Birth and death categories|
|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1254 in poetry|
|Ab urbe condita||2007|
|Balinese saka calendar||1175–1176|
|English Regnal year||38 Hen. 3 – 39 Hen. 3|
|Chinese calendar||癸丑年 (Water Ox)|
3950 or 3890
— to —
甲寅年 (Wood Tiger)
3951 or 3891
|- Vikram Samvat||1310–1311|
|- Shaka Samvat||1175–1176|
|- Kali Yuga||4354–4355|
|Japanese calendar||Kenchō 6|
|Minguo calendar||658 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||1796–1797|
1380 or 999 or 227
— to —
1381 or 1000 or 228
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to 1254.|
- King Louis IX of France, having exhausted his funds and being needed at home, abandons the Seventh Crusade (which he had conducted first in Egypt and then Syria), and returns to France.
- The classic Japanese text Kokin Chomonjo is completed.
- The Mongols destroy the Kingdom of Dali, in modern Yunnan.
- The Mongols enslave 200,000 Koreans, and take them away.
- June 12 – The city of Alkmaar obtains city rights from the count of Holland, William II.
- November 1 – Edward Plantagenet (the future Edward I of England, aged 15) marries Eleanor of Castile (aged c. 13), at the Abbey of Santa María la Real de Las Huelgas, Burgos. His father Henry III has demanded the marriage, in exchange for ending the war with her brother Alfonso X of Castile.
- In England, an important step in the evolution of the Parliament and Peerage occurs, as lesser barons are replaced, on the King's Council, by elected representatives from shires and cities.
- Pope Innocent IV excommunicates Conrad IV of Germany and Rudolph I of Germany (who is later elected Holy Roman Emperor).
- The Danish city of Copenhagen receives its city charter.
- The Swedish city of Malmö is founded.
- Danylo of Halych, prince of Halych-Wolyn Rus, is crowned a king. The kingdom of Rus (Ruthenia Minor, Halych-Wolyn) is founded.
- December 2 – Manfred of Sicily defeats the army of Pope Innocent IV, at Foggia.
- King Louis IX of France expels all Jews from France.
- King Afonso III of Portugal holds the first session of the Cortes (Portugal's general assembly composed of nobles, members of the middle class, and representatives from all municipalities), in Leiria.
- The Ghibelline town of Pistoia is taken over by Guelph Florence.
- The Horses of Saint Mark, once supposed to have adorned the Arch of Trajan in ancient Rome, are installed at Saint Mark's Basilica in Venice.
- Battle of Adrianople: The Byzantines defeat Bulgaria.
- As part of an offensive against usury in north-western Europe, Pope Innocent IV relieves the city of Beauvais from its obligations to its creditors.
- December 12 – Pope Alexander IV succeeds Pope Innocent IV, as the 181st pope.
- Construction is begun on the Cathedral of Saint Martin in Utrecht.
- The Catholic dogma of purgatory is clarified and so named, by the Catholic Church.
- May 13 – Marie of Brabant, Queen of France (d. 1322)
- June 24 – Floris V, Count of Holland (d. 1296)
- September 15 – Marco Polo, Italian explorer (d. 1324)
- date unknown
- March 28 – William de Ferrers, 5th Earl of Derby (b. 1193)
- May 21 – Conrad IV of Germany (b. 1228)
- June 8 – Robert of Nantes, Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
- November 3 – John III Doukas Vatatzes, Byzantine Emperor (b. 1193)
- December 7 – Pope Innocent IV
- date unknown – Silvester de Everdon, English bishop
- Kristina Nilsdotter, Swedish noblewoman