1256 Normannia

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1256 Normannia
Discovery [1]
Discovered byK. Reinmuth
Discovery siteHeidelberg Obs.
Discovery date8 August 1932
MPC designation(1256) Normannia
Named after
Normans / Normandy[2]
(people/region in France)
1932 PD · 1930 KO
main-belt · (outer)[1]
Hilda[3][4][5] · background [6]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc87.43 yr (31,933 days)
Aphelion4.1995 AU
Perihelion3.5903 AU
3.8949 AU
7.69 yr (2,808 days)
0° 7m 41.52s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions68.253±0.436 km[7]
69.02 km (derived)[4]
69.22±2.8 km[8]
73.26±2.34 km[9]
6.4±0.1h (poor)[a]
6.8 h (poor)[10]
18.13±0.02 h[5]
18.8 (poor) h[11]
488.063±7.4017 h[12]
0.0364 (derived)[4]
Tholen = D[1][4] · D[7][13]
B–V = 0.737[1]
U–B = 0.239[1]
9.475±0.002 (R)[12] · 9.66[1][8][9] · 9.74[10] · 9.94±0.71[4][13] · 10.02[11]

1256 Normannia, provisional designation 1932 PD, is a dark Hildian asteroid and slow rotator from the outermost regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 69 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 8 August 1932, by astronomer Karl Reinmuth at the Heidelberg-Königstuhl State Observatory in Germany.[3] The asteroid was likely named after the Normans who gave their name to the region of Normandy in France.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Normannia is a member of the Hilda group of asteroids, which are in 3:2 orbital resonance with the gas-giant Jupiter.[4][5] When applying the Hierarchical Clustering Method to its proper orbital elements, Normannia is a background asteroid that does not belong to neither the Hilda family (001) nor the Schubart family (002),[6] the only two asteroid families known within the Hilda group.[14]:23

It orbits the Sun in the outermost asteroid belt at a distance of 3.6–4.2 AU once every 7 years and 8 months (2,808 days; semi-major axis of 3.89 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.08 and an inclination of 4° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] The body's observation arc begins with its first identification as 1930 KO at Lowell Observatory in May 1930, more than two years prior to its official discovery observation at Heidelberg.[3]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the Tholen classification, Normannia is a dark D-type asteroid.[1][4] Observations by Pan-STARRS and by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) also characterized the asteroid as a D-type.[7][13]

Rotation period[edit]

In September 2010, a rotational lightcurve of Normannia was obtained from photometric observations by astronomers at the Palomar Transient Factory in California. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 488.063 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.39 magnitude (U=2).[12] This makes it one of the Top-100 slow rotators known to exist. Other observations gave several poor lightcurves with a much shorter period between 6.4 and 18.8 hours (U=1/1/1/n.a.).[5][10][11][a]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's WISE telescope, Normannia measures between 68.253 and 73.26 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.046 and 0.052.[7][8][9]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0364 and a diameter of 69.02 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.02.[4]


This minor planet was probably named after the Normans ("Norseman"), mainly Danish and Norwegian Vikings who settled in the historical region of Normandy in northwestern France. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 115).[2]


  1. ^ a b Aznar (2014) web: Observation from 24 March 2014: rotation period 6.4±0.1 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.09±0.01 mag. Summary figures at the LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1256 Normannia (1932 PD)" (2017-10-28 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1256) Normannia". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1256) Normannia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 104. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1257. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c "1256 Normannia (1932 PD)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "LCDB Data for (1256) Normannia". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Gartrelle, Gordon M. (April 2012). "Lightcurve Results for Eleven Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 39 (2): 40%–46. Bibcode:2012MPBu...39...40G. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  6. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J.; Masiero, J.; Spahr, T.; McMillan, R. S.; et al. (January 2012). "WISE/NEOWISE Observations of the Hilda Population: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 744 (2): 15. arXiv:1110.0283. Bibcode:2012ApJ...744..197G. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/744/2/197. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  8. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Archived from the original on 2016-06-03. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  10. ^ a b c Binzel, Richard P.; Sauter, Linda M. (February 1992). "Trojan, Hilda, and Cybele asteroids - New lightcurve observations and analysis". Icarus. 95 (2): 222–238. Bibcode:1992Icar...95..222B. doi:10.1016/0019-1035(92)90039-A. ISSN 0019-1035. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  11. ^ a b c Dahlgren, M.; Lahulla, J. F.; Lagerkvist, C.-I.; Lagerros, J.; Mottola, S.; Erikson, A.; et al. (June 1998). "A Study of Hilda Asteroids. V. Lightcurves of 47 Hilda Asteroids". Icarus. 133 (2): 247–285. Bibcode:1998Icar..133..247D. doi:10.1006/icar.1998.5919. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  12. ^ a b c Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  13. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
  14. ^ Nesvorný, D.; Broz, M.; Carruba, V. (December 2014). Identification and Dynamical Properties of Asteroid Families. Asteroids IV. pp. 297–321. arXiv:1502.01628. Bibcode:2015aste.book..297N. doi:10.2458/azu_uapress_9780816532131-ch016. ISBN 9780816532131.

External links[edit]