1263 Varsavia

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1263 Varsavia
1263Varsavia (Lightcurve Inversion).png
Lightcurve-based 3D-model of Varsavia
Discovery [1]
Discovered byS. Arend
Discovery siteUccle Obs.
Discovery date23 March 1933
MPC designation(1263) Varsavia
Named after
Warsaw (Polish capital)[2]
1933 FF · 1948 PB1
main-belt · (middle)[3]
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc84.28 yr (30,784 days)
Aphelion3.1673 AU
Perihelion2.1617 AU
2.6645 AU
4.35 yr (1,589 days)
0° 13m 35.76s / day
Physical characteristics
Dimensions34.15±0.16 km[4]
37.56±10.71 km[5]
40.21±15.51 km[6]
41±8 km[7]
44.2 km[8]
49.29±1.1 km (IRAS:11)[9]
51.44±0.74 km[10]
7.163±0.012 h[11]
7.1639±0.0003 h[12][a]
7.16495±0.00005 h[7]
7.1659±0.0013 h[13]
7.1680±0.0006 h[b]
7.231±0.002 h[14]
16.5±0.2 h (wrong)[15]
0.0459±0.002 (IRAS:11)[9]
0.0874 (derived)[3]
X (Tholen),[1] Xc (SMASS)[1]
X[3] · B–V = 0.727[1]
U–B = 0.321[1]
10.09±0.12[16] · 10.2[1][3][5] · 10.224±0.001 (R)[13] · 10.38[6] · 10.42[4] · 10.5[8][9][10] · 10.51±0.34[17]

1263 Varsavia, provisional designation 1933 FF, is an asteroid from the central region of the asteroid belt, approximately 40 kilometers in diameter. It was discovered on 23 March 1933, by Belgian astronomer Sylvain Arend at Uccle Observatory in Belgium.[18] It is named for the city of Warsaw.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Varsavia orbits the Sun in the central main-belt at a distance of 2.2–3.2 AU once every 4 years and 4 months (1,589 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.19 and an inclination of 29° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] As no precoveries were taken, and no prior identifications were made, the body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Uccle in 1933.[18]

Physical characteristics[edit]

Varsavia is an X-type asteroid in the Tholen taxonomy. In the SMASS classification, it is a Xc-type, that transitions to the carbonaceous C-type asteroids.[1]

Rotation period[edit]

In April 2003, the first rotational lightcurve of Varsavia was obtained by American astronomer Brian Warner at his Palmer Divide Station in Colorado. Revised data gave a well-defined rotation period of 7.1639 hours with a brightness variation of 0.15 magnitude (U=3).[12][a]

Another well defined period of 7.1680 hours (Δ0.15 mag) was derived from photometric observations taken by Australian astronomer Julian Oey at Leura Observatory in February 2011 (U=3).[b] Concurring results were also obtained by Robert Stephens in April 2003 (7.231 h; Δ0.15 mag; U=2),[14] and from the Palomar Transient Factory in June 2012 (7.1659 h; Δ0.28 mag; U=2).[13] The most recent light curve was obtained by the "Spanish Photometric Asteroid Analysis Group" (OBAS) in May 2016, which gave a period of 7.163 hours with an amplitude of 0.12 magnitude (U=3-).[11]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite, and NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer with its subsequent NEOWISE mission, Varsavia measures between 34.15 and 51.44 kilometers in diameter, and its surface has an albedo between 0.042 and 0.10.[4][5][6][9][10] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0874 and adopts a diameter of 41 kilometers, obtained from modeled data and a directly observed minor planet occultation of a star.[3][7]


This minor planet was named by Tadeusz Banachiewicz after the Latin name of the city of Warsaw, capital of Poland. The naming citation includes a note of thanks for the support given by the city's observatory.[2] Naming citation was first published in German by Astronomisches Rechen-Institut (RI 843).[2]


  1. ^ a b Lightcurve plot of 1263 Varsavia, Palmer Divide Observatory, B. D. Warner (2003)
  2. ^ a b Oey (2011) web: rotation period 7.1680±0.0006 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.15 mag. Summary figures at Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) for (1263) Varsavia and Julian Oey at Leura Observatory


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1263 Varsavia (1933 FF)" (2017-07-04 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 26 July 2017.
  2. ^ a b c d Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1263) Varsavia". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (1263) Varsavia. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 104. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1264. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e "LCDB Data for (1263) Varsavia". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  5. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  7. ^ a b c Durech, Josef; Kaasalainen, Mikko; Herald, David; Dunham, David; Timerson, Brad; Hanus, Josef; et al. (August 2011). "Combining asteroid models derived by lightcurve inversion with asteroidal occultation silhouettes". Icarus. 214 (2): 652–670. arXiv:1104.4227. Bibcode:2011Icar..214..652D. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2011.03.016. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Shevchenko, Vasilij G.; Tedesco, Edward F. (September 2006). "Asteroid albedos deduced from stellar occultations". Icarus. 184 (1): 211–220. Bibcode:2006Icar..184..211S. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2006.04.006. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  9. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 17 October 2019. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  11. ^ a b Mansego, Enrique Arce; Rodriguez, Pedro Brines; de Haro, Juan Lozano; Chiner, Onofre Rodrigo; Silva, Alvaro Fornas; Porta, David Herrero; et al. (October 2016). "Eighteen Asteroids Lightcurves at Asteroides Observers (OBAS) - MPPD: 2016 March-May". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 43 (4): 332–336. Bibcode:2016MPBu...43..332M. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  12. ^ a b Warner, Brian D.; Stephens, Robert D. (April 2011). "Lightcurve Analysis for a Trio of Asteroids". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 38 (2): 110–111. Bibcode:2011MPBu...38..110W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  13. ^ a b c Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  14. ^ a b Stephens, Robert D.; Warner, Brian D. (March 2004). "Lightcurve analysis of 1263 Varsavia". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 31 (1): 24–25. Bibcode:2004MPBu...31...24S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  15. ^ Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1263) Varsavia". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  16. ^ Warner, Brian D. (December 2007). "Initial Results of a Dedicated H-G Project". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 34 (4): 113–119. Bibcode:2007MPBu...34..113W. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  17. ^ Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 24 January 2017.
  18. ^ a b "1263 Varsavia (1933 FF)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 24 January 2017.

External links[edit]