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|1268 by topic|
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War and politics
- February 18 – Battle of Rakvere: The Livonian Order is defeated by Dovmont of Pskov.
- August 23 – Battle of Tagliacozzo: The army of Charles of Anjou defeats the Ghibellines supporters of Conradin of Hohenstaufen, marking the fall of the Hohenstaufen Family from the Imperial and Sicilian thrones, and leading to the new chapter of Angevin domination in Southern Italy.
- October 29 – Conradin, the last legitimate male heir of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty of Kings of Germany and Holy Roman Emperors, is executed, along with his companion Frederick I, Margrave of Baden, by Charles I of Sicily, a political rival and ally to the hostile Roman Catholic Church.
- King Stephen V of Hungary launches a war against Bulgaria.
- The County of Wernigerode becomes a vassal state of the Margrave of Brandenburg.
- New election procedures for the election of the doge are established in Venice, in order to reduce the influence of powerful individual families.
- Pope Clement IV dies; the following papal election fails to choose a new pope for almost 3 years, precipitating the later creation of stringent rules governing the electoral procedures.
- Nicola Pisano completes the famous octagonal Gothic-style pulpit, at the Duomo di Siena.
- The carnival in Venice is first recorded.
- In France, the use of hops as the exclusive flavoring agent used in the manufacture of beer is made compulsory.
- In Slovakia, Guta is founded (currently Kolárovo).
- May 18 – Battle of Antioch: The Principality of Antioch, a crusader state, falls to the Mamluk Sultan Baibars; his destruction of the city of Antioch is so great, as to permanently negate the city's importance.
- The Battle of Xiangyang, a 6-year battle between the Chinese Song dynasty and the Mongol forces of Kublai Khan, begins in what is today Hubei.
- Kublai Khan sends an emissary to the Kamakura shogunate of Japan, demanding an acknowledgment of suzerainty and payment of tribute; the Japanese refuse, starting a diplomatic back-and-forth, lasting until the Mongols attempt to invade in 1274.
- An earthquake in Cilicia kills an estimated 60,000 people.
- The Tibetan monk Drogön Chögyal Phagpa of the Sakya School completes the 'Phags-pa script, which was sponsored by Kublai Khan as a new writing system in his empire.
- April/June – Philip IV of France (d. 1314)
- Saint Clare of Montefalco (d. 1308)
- Emperor Duanzong of China (d. 1278)
- Mahaut, Countess of Artois (d. 1327)
- May 15 – Peter II, Count of Savoy (b. 1203)
- August 11 – Agnes of Faucigny, Dame ruler of Faucigny, countess consort of Savoy
- October 29
- November 29 – Pope Clement IV
- December 9 – Vaišvilkas, Prince of Black Ruthenia
- date unknown