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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1278 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1278
Ab urbe condita2031
Armenian calendar727
Assyrian calendar6028
Balinese saka calendar1199–1200
Bengali calendar685
Berber calendar2228
English Regnal yearEdw. 1 – 7 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1822
Burmese calendar640
Byzantine calendar6786–6787
Chinese calendar丁丑年 (Fire Ox)
3974 or 3914
    — to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
3975 or 3915
Coptic calendar994–995
Discordian calendar2444
Ethiopian calendar1270–1271
Hebrew calendar5038–5039
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1334–1335
 - Shaka Samvat1199–1200
 - Kali Yuga4378–4379
Holocene calendar11278
Igbo calendar278–279
Iranian calendar656–657
Islamic calendar676–677
Japanese calendarKenji 4 / Kōan 1
Javanese calendar1188–1189
Julian calendar1278
Korean calendar3611
Minguo calendar634 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−190
Thai solar calendar1820–1821
Tibetan calendar阴火牛年
(female Fire-Ox)
1404 or 1023 or 251
    — to —
(male Earth-Tiger)
1405 or 1024 or 252

Year 1278 (MCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place[edit]



  • November 17 – King Edward I (Longshanks) raises the penalty for coin clipping from banishment to execution. All Jews are subjected to arrest and search of their homes on suspicion of coin clipping. Some 680 Jews are imprisoned in the Tower of London, with more than 300 subsequently executed. At this time, the Jewish population is believed to have been some 3,000.[6]



By topic[edit]

Art and Culture[edit]

  • The earliest known written copy of the Avesta, a collection of ancient sacred Persian Zoroastrian texts previously passed down orally, is produced.


  • Giles of Lessines writes his De usuris. He estimates that some credit contracts need not to be usurious, as "future things are not estimated to be of such value as those collected in the instant". The prevalence of this view in the usury debate allows for the development of the financial industry in Roman Catholic Europe.[8]





  1. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp (1987). The Late medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, p. 193. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
  2. ^ Fine, John Van Antwerp (1987). The Late medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Late Twelfth Century to the Ottoman Conquest, p. 186. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-08260-4.
  3. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 75. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  4. ^ Clauss, M. (2010). Rogers, Clifford, J. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Medieval Warfare and Military Technology: Volume I, p. 552–554. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195334036.
  5. ^ de Epalza, Miguel (1999). Negotiating cultures: bilingual surrender treaties in Muslim-Crusader Spain under James the Conqueror. Brill. p. 120. ISBN 90-04-11244-8.
  6. ^ David B. Green. Haaretz – Jewish World: All Jews of England are arrested in a 'coin-clipping' scandal, retrieved on November 17, 2013.
  7. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 288. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  8. ^ Munro, John H. (2003). "The Medieval Origins of the Financial Revolution". The International History Review. 15 (3): 506–562.