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|1280 by topic|
|Political entities - State leaders - Religious leaders|
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|Births – Deaths|
|Establishments and disestablishments categories|
|Establishments – Disestablishments|
|Art and literature|
|1280 in poetry|
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- June 23 – Reconquista – Battle of Moclín: Troops of the Emirate of Granada defeat those of the Kingdom of Castile, and Kingdom of León.
- Construction on the northern section of the Grand Canal of China is begun.
- The final expansion of Lincoln Cathedral in England is completed.
- King Magnus III of Sweden founds a Swedish nobility, by enacting a law accepting a contribution of a cavalry-member in lieu of ordinary tax payments.
- Tsar Ivan Asen III of Bulgaria flees from Tarnovo, ending the Asen Dynasty in Bulgaria.
- Syria attempts to secede from the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, but Al Mansur Qalawun defeats the rebels, and keeps Syria within the Egyptian sultanate.
- The second of two main surveys of the Hundred Rolls, an English census seen as a follow up to the Domesday Book completed in 1086, is completed; it began in 1279.
- Turin is conquered by Thomas III of Savoy, becoming the capital of the House of Savoy.
- Approximate date
- Birger, King of Sweden, Swedish monarch (d. 1321)
- Wu Zhen, Chinese painter (d. 1354)
- Anna of Kashin, Russian saint (d. 1368)
- February 10 – Margaret II, Countess of Flanders (b. 1202)
- May 9 – Magnus VI of Norway
- August 22 – Pope Nicholas III (b. 1218)
- November 15 – Albertus Magnus, German theologian