1290s

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The 1290s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1290, and ended on December 31, 1299.

Events

1290

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
  • July 18Edict of Expulsion: King Edward I (Longshanks) orders all Jews (at this time probably numbering around 2,000) to leave the country by November 1 (All Saints' Day);[3] on the Hebrew Calendar this is Tisha B'Av, a day that commemorates many calamities.
  • Quia Emptores, a statute passed by Edward I (Longshanks), puts an end to the practice of subinfeudations. The statute allows land to be sold according to royal approval, as long as the new owner answers directly to his lord or the king.
  • September – The 7-year-old Margaret (Maid of Norway), queen-designate and heir to the crown of Scotland, dies en route to the British Isles in Orkney – leading to a succession crisis known as Competitors for the crown of Scotland.
  • November 28Eleanor of Castile, wife of Edward I (Longshanks), dies while traveling in the North. She has been suffering from illness for some time, and the cold and dampness of the winter months probably aggravate her condition.
  • December – Edward I (Longshanks) travels with the body of Eleanor of Castile from Lincoln to London. Remembering his wife, Edward erects a series of crosses at each location that the body rests over night. These are known as the twelve Eleanor crosses.
  • Winter – The second of the Statutes of Mortmain are passed during the reign of Edward I (Longshanks), which prevents land from passing into the possession of the Church.
Levant[edit]
  • June – Genoa concludes a new commercial treaty with the Mamluks; five galleys sent by King James II (the Just) join the Venetian Crusader fleet (some 20 ships) on its way to Acre. On board of the fleet are Italian urban militias and mercenary forces under Seneschal Jean I de Grailly, who have fought for the Papal States in the so-called Italian Crusades.[4]
  • August – Italian Crusaders massacre Muslim merchants and peasants, and some local Christians in Acre. Some claim it began at a drunken party – others that a European husband found his wife making love to a Muslim. The barons and local knights try to rescue a few Muslims and take them to the safety of the castle, while some ringleaders are arrested.[5]
  • August 30 – Survivors and relatives of the massacre at Acre take bloodstained clothing to Sultan Qalawun (the Victorious) in Cairo, who demands that the leaders of the riot be handed over for trial. But the nobles refuse to send the ringleaders, Qalawun now got legal clearance from the religious authorities in Cairo to break the truce with Crusader states.[6]
  • October – Qalawun (the Victorious) orders a general mobilization of the Mamluk forces. In a council, is decided that a peace delegation is sent to Cairo under Guillaume de Beaujeu, Grand Master of the Knights Templar. But Qalawun demands huge compensation for those killed in Acre, and sends a Syrian army to the coast of Palestine, near Caesarea.[7]
  • November 10 – Qalawun (the Victorious) dies as the Egyptian Mamluk army sets out for Acre. He is succeeded by his eldest son Al-Ashraf Khalil as ruler of the Mamluk Sultanate. Kahlil orders his allies and tributaries in Syria to prepare for a campaign next spring. Governors and castle commanders are ordered to assemble siege equipment and armor.[8]
Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Art and Culture[edit]
Climate and Weather[edit]
  • Year without winter – An exceptionally rare instance of uninterrupted transition, from autumn to the following spring, in England and the mainland of Western Europe.[11]
Education[edit]
Literature[edit]

1291

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
  • Spring – Several nobles unsuccessful claimed the Scottish throne (a process known as the Great Cause), including John Balliol, Robert V (de Bruse), John Hastings, and William de Vesci. Fearing civil war, the Guardians of Scotland ask King Edward I (Longshanks) to arbitrate. Before agreeing, he obtains concessions to revive English overlordship over the Scots.
  • May 10 – Edward I (Longshanks) meets the claimants for the Scottish crown at Norham Castle and informs them that he will judge the various claims to the throne. But they must acknowledge him as overlord of Scotland and, to ensure peace, surrender the Royal Castles of the kingdom into his keeping.[16]
  • June 13 – Guardians and the Scottish nobles recognize Edward I (Longshanks) as overlord of Scotland. They agree that the kingdom will be handed over to Edward until a rightful heir has been found.[17]
Levant[edit]
  • May 18Siege of Acre: Mamluk forces under Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil capture Acre after a six-week siege. The Mamluks take the outer wall of the city after fierce fighting. The Military Orders drive them back temporarily, but three days later the inner wall is breached. King Henry II escapes, but the bulk of the defenders and most of the citizens perish in the fighting or are sold into slavery. The surviving knights fall back to the fortified towers and resist for ten days until the Mamluks breakthrough on May 28.[18] The fall of Acre signals the end of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. No effective Crusade is raised to recapture the Holy Land afterward.[19]
  • June – Al-Ashraf Khalil enters Damascus in triumph with Crusaders chained at their feet and the captured Crusader standards – which are carried upside-down as a sign of their defeat. Following the capture of Acre, Khalil and his Mamluk generals proceed to wrest control of the remaining Crusader-held fortresses along the Syrian coast. Within weeks, the Mamluks conquer Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Haifa and Tartus.[20]
  • July – Thibaud Gaudin arrives with the surviving knights, with the treasure of the Order, in Sidon. There, he is elected as Grand Master of the Knights Templar, to succeed William of Beaujeu (who is deadly wounded during the siege of Acre). Shortly after, Mamluk forces attack Sidon and Gaudin (who has not had enough knights to defend) evacuates the city and moves to the Castle of the Sea on July 14.[21]
  • August – Mamluk forces conquer the last Crusader outpost in Syria, the Templar fortress of Atlit south of Acre on August 14. All that now is left to the Knights Templar is the island fortress of Ruad. Al-Ashraf Khalil returns to Cairo in triumph as the "victor in the long struggle against the Crusader states".[22]
Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Exploration[edit]
Markets[edit]
Religion[edit]

1292

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
  • June 24 – Castilian forces led by King Sancho IV (the Brave) begin the siege of Tarifa, eleven newly built engines bombard the city constantly by land and sea. Meanwhile, Muhammad II, Nasrid ruler of Granada, provides the army of Sancho with men, arms and also aid the blockade in the Strait of Gibraltar. Muhammad attacks Marinid outposts, and his forces seize Estepona on the coast to the west of Málaga. Sancho conquers Tarifa after a siege of four months, on October 13.[25]
  • December – Muhammad II sends ambassadors to the Castilian court to ask Sancho IV (the Brave) to surrender Tarifa. Sancho refuses to yield the city to Granada and Muhammad, feeling betrayed, switches sides to form an alliance with the Marinids.[26][27]
England[edit]
Levant[edit]
Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1293

By area[edit]

Africa[edit]
  • DecemberMamluk sultan of Egypt Khalil is assassinated by his regent Baydara, who briefly claims the sultanate, before being assassinated himself by a rival political faction.[34]
Asia[edit]
Europe[edit]

By topic[edit]

Arts and culture[edit]
Education[edit]
Religion[edit]

1294

Asia[edit]

Europe[edit]

1295

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Asia[edit]

1296

January–December[edit]

Date unknown[edit]

1297

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
  • April 14 – King Edward I (Longshanks) makes an appeal outside Westminster Hall for support for the war against France. He apologizes for the high tax demands he has previously levied. Edward asks the Barons (some 1,500 knights) to swear allegiance to his 12-year-old son, Prince Edward of Caernarfon. Aware of the dangers of the opposition to his power, Edward appears before a large crowd and receives total loyalty.
  • May – William Wallace, Scottish rebel leader, leads an uprising against the English at Lanark and kills Sheriff William Hesselrig. He joins with William Douglas the Hardy, the first Scottish nobleman in rebellion – combining forces at Sanquhar, Durisdeer and Scone Abbey (known as the Raid on Scone) in June. Later, Wallace captures the English treasury at Scone to finance the rebellion against Edward I (Longshanks).[77]
  • Summer – Edward I (Longshanks) orders a punitive expedition against the rebellious Scots. At Roxburgh, an army of some 9,000 men (including 2,000 cavalry) led by John de Warenne is assembled. Meanwhile, William Wallace leaves the forest of Selkirk with reinforcements and turns his attention north of the Forth River.[78]
  • July – In Scotland, a group of nobles forms a confederacy (organized by Robert Wishart, bishop of Glasgow), but are defeated by English troops at Irvine. An agreement of submission to Edward I (Longshanks) is signed by the future Scottish king Robert I (the Bruce) and other Scottish leaders.
  • August 22 – Edward I (Longshanks) leads an expedition to Flanders. He moves with an army (some 8,000 men) supported by 800 knights to Ghent and makes the city his base of operations in Flanders.
  • September 11Battle of Stirling Bridge: Scottish forces (some 6,000 men) led by Andrew Moray and William Wallace defeat an English army under John de Warenne at Stirling, on the Forth River.[79]
  • October–November – Scottish forces led by William Wallace begin raids in Northumberland and Cumberland. During a ceremony at Selkirk, Wallace is knighted and appointed Guardian of Scotland.[80]
  • Winter – Edward I (Longshanks) accepts a truce proposed by King Philip IV (the Fair) and leaves Flanders. He returns to London and prepares a campaign against William Wallace in Scotland.

By topic[edit]

Religion[edit]

1298

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
  • Summer – King Edward I (Longshanks) marches from Newcastle with his household to Alnwick and then by way of Chillingham to Roxburgh, where he joins the army in July. He proceeds to Lauderdale and encamps at Kirkliston, to the west of Edinburgh, where he remains from July 15 to July 20. The army is accompanied by a long train of supply wagons. Meanwhile, English supply ships, delayed by bad weather, bring food to Leith.[89]
  • July 22Battle of Falkirk: English forces (some 15,000 men) led by Edward I (Longshanks) defeat a Scottish army led by William Wallace at Falkirk. During the battle, the English knights drive off the Scottish horse and archers, but cannot break the pikemen in the center. The Scottish pikemen are formed in four great "hedgehogs" (known as schiltron) but are destroyed by English longbow archers.[86]
Asia[edit]

By topic[edit]

Cities and Towns[edit]
Markets[edit]
  • The foreign creditors of the Sienese Gran Tavola Bank start demanding their deposits back, thus accelerating the liquidity crisis faced by the firm.[92]
Religion[edit]
Technology[edit]

1299

By place[edit]

Europe[edit]
England[edit]
Levant[edit]
Asia[edit]
  • Spring – Mongol invasion of India: Duwa Khan, Mongol ruler of the Chagatai Khanate, sends his sons Qutlugh Khwaja and Duwa Temür with a army of some 50,000 horsemen over the border. The Mongols bypass villages to maximize speed, intending to strike directly at Delhi itself. At the Jumna River, Mongol forces under Qutlugh defeated Zafar Khan, and are forced to retreat to Delhi. News of the defeat causes thousands to abandon their homes, the capital is soon flooded with refugees. The streets, the markets and the mosques become overcrowded. Meanwhile, the merchant caravans headed for Delhi are interrupted by the Mongols.[101]
  • February 25 – Sultan Alauddin Khalji orders the army (some 35,000 men) to prepare for the march to Gujarat. One part of the army under Nusrat Khan starts its march from Delhi. Another part, led by Ulugh Khan, marches from Sindh and attacks Jaisalmer along the way. When the army returns from raiding Gujarat, Mongol soldiers stage a mutiny over payment of khums (one-fifth of the share of loot). The mutiny is crushed, the mutineer families in Delhi are punished and executed.[102][103]
  • Battle of Kili: Alauddin Khalji raises forces (some 70,000 men with 700 elephants) and attacks the Mongols under Qutlugh Khwaja north of Delhi. Zafar Khan, looking to avenge his defeat on the River Jumna, leads the first charge, attacking the Mongol left flank, which breaks before him. Zafar gives chase to drive them from the field – but he is ambushed by a feigned retreat. He is captured and executed with all his men. Qutlugh is wounded in battle and dies during the return journey.[104]
  • May 10 – King Kyawswa of Pagan and his son, Crown Prince Theingapati, are executed at Myinsaing, by the three brothers of the Myinsaing Kingdom (nominally Kyawswa's viceroys), for submitting and being a vassal to the Mongol-led Yuan Dynasty (since 1297).
  • July 27Osman I (or Othman) declares the Anatolian beylik (principality) to be independent of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum, originating the Ottoman Empire. Osman becomes the founder and the first ruler, with Söğüt as the capital, which will last until the 1920s.
  • The Kingdom of Singapura is founded by Sang Nila Utama, a Srivijaya prince. Upon his coronation, he adopts the official title Sri Tri Buana (translated as "Lord of Three Worlds").[105]

By topic[edit]

Cities and Towns[edit]
Religion[edit]
Science and Technology[edit]

Significant people[edit]

Births[edit]

1290

1291

1292

1293

1294

1295

1296

1297

1298

1299

Deaths[edit]

1290

1291

1292

1293

1294

1295

1296

1297

1298

1299

References[edit]

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