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Millennium: 2nd millennium
1291 in various calendars
Gregorian calendar1291
Ab urbe condita2044
Armenian calendar740
Assyrian calendar6041
Balinese saka calendar1212–1213
Bengali calendar698
Berber calendar2241
English Regnal year19 Edw. 1 – 20 Edw. 1
Buddhist calendar1835
Burmese calendar653
Byzantine calendar6799–6800
Chinese calendar庚寅年 (Metal Tiger)
3987 or 3927
    — to —
辛卯年 (Metal Rabbit)
3988 or 3928
Coptic calendar1007–1008
Discordian calendar2457
Ethiopian calendar1283–1284
Hebrew calendar5051–5052
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat1347–1348
 - Shaka Samvat1212–1213
 - Kali Yuga4391–4392
Holocene calendar11291
Igbo calendar291–292
Iranian calendar669–670
Islamic calendar689–691
Japanese calendarShōō 4
Javanese calendar1201–1202
Julian calendar1291
Korean calendar3624
Minguo calendar621 before ROC
Nanakshahi calendar−177
Thai solar calendar1833–1834
Tibetan calendar阳金虎年
(male Iron-Tiger)
1417 or 1036 or 264
    — to —
(female Iron-Rabbit)
1418 or 1037 or 265
Marshal Matthew of Clermont defends the walls at the Siege of Acre (1840)
Map of Acre (1291) during the siege of the Mamluk campaign (4 April–18 May)

Year 1291 (MCCXCI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


By place[edit]



  • Spring – Several nobles unsuccessful claimed the Scottish throne (a process known as the Great Cause), including John Balliol, Robert V (de Bruse), John Hastings, and William de Vesci. Fearing civil war, the Guardians of Scotland ask King Edward I (Longshanks) to arbitrate. Before agreeing, he obtains concessions to revive English overlordship over the Scots.
  • May 10 – Edward I (Longshanks) meets the claimants for the Scottish crown at Norham Castle and informs them that he will judge the various claims to the throne. But they must acknowledge him as overlord of Scotland and, to ensure peace, surrender the Royal Castles of the kingdom into his keeping.[5]
  • June 13 – Guardians and the Scottish nobles recognize Edward I (Longshanks) as overlord of Scotland. They agree that the kingdom will be handed over to Edward until a rightful heir has been found.[6]


  • May 18Siege of Acre: Mamluk forces under Sultan Al-Ashraf Khalil capture Acre after a six-week siege. The Mamluks take the outer wall of the city after fierce fighting. The Military Orders drive them back temporarily, but three days later the inner wall is breached. King Henry II escapes, but the bulk of the defenders and most of the citizens perish in the fighting or are sold into slavery. The surviving knights fall back to the fortified towers and resist for ten days until the Mamluks breakthrough on May 28.[7] The fall of Acre signals the end of the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. No effective Crusade is raised to recapture the Holy Land afterward.[8]
  • June – Al-Ashraf Khalil enters Damascus in triumph with Crusaders chained at their feet and the captured Crusader standards – which are carried upside-down as a sign of their defeat. Following the capture of Acre, Khalil and his Mamluk generals proceed to wrest control of the remaining Crusader-held fortresses along the Syrian coast. Within weeks, the Mamluks conquer Tyre, Sidon, Beirut, Haifa and Tartus.[9]
  • July – Thibaud Gaudin arrives with the surviving knights, with the treasure of the Order, in Sidon. There, he is elected as Grand Master of the Knights Templar, to succeed William of Beaujeu (who is deadly wounded during the siege of Acre). Shortly after, Mamluk forces attack Sidon and Gaudin (who has not had enough knights to defend) evacuates the city and moves to the Castle of the Sea on July 14.[10]
  • August – Mamluk forces conquer the last Crusader outpost in Syria, the Templar fortress of Atlit south of Acre on August 14. All that now is left to the Knights Templar is the island fortress of Ruad. Al-Ashraf Khalil returns to Cairo in triumph as the "victor in the long struggle against the Crusader states".[11]


By topic[edit]







  1. ^ White Book of Sarnen (15th century).
  2. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 96. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  3. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, p. 97. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  4. ^ O'Callaghan, Joseph F. (2011). The Gibraltar Crusade: Castile and the Battle for the Strait, pp. 97–98. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-2302-6.
  5. ^ Armstrong, Pete (2003). Osprey: Stirling Bridge & Falkirk 1297–98, p. 7. ISBN 1-84176-510-4.
  6. ^ Prestwich, Michael (1997). Edward I, p. 365. The English Monarchs Series. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-300-07209-9.
  7. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 351. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  8. ^ David Nicolle (2005). Osprey: Acre 1291 - Bloody sunset of the Crusader states, pp. 18–19. ISBN 978-1-84176-862-5.
  9. ^ Holt, Peter Malcolm (1986). The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517, p. 104. Addison Wesley Longman Limited. ISBN 978-1-31787-152-1.
  10. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 352. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  11. ^ Steven Runciman (1952). A History of The Crusades. Vol III: The Kingdom of Acre, p. 353. ISBN 978-0-241-29877-0.
  12. ^ Chisholm, Hugh (1911). "Vivaldo, Ugolino and Sorleone de". Encyclopædia Britannica, p. 152. Vol. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  13. ^ Zuijderduijn, Jaco (2010). "The emergence of provincial debt in the county of Holland (thirteenth-sixteenth centuries)". European Review of Economic History. 14 (2): 335–359. doi:10.1017/S1361491610000055.
  14. ^ "Afonso IV | king of Portugal". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  15. ^ "Alfonso III | king of Aragon". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved November 17, 2020.