1294 Antwerpia

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1294 Antwerpia
001294-asteroid shape model (1294) Antwerpia.png
Shape model of Antwerpia from its lightcurve
Discovered byE. Delporte
Discovery siteUccle Obs.
Discovery date24 October 1933
(1294) Antwerpia
Named after
Antwerp (Belgian city)[2]
1933 UB1 · 1930 AF
1932 LC · 1964 VA2
1964 XF · A917 DB
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch 4 September 2017 (JD 2458000.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc99.63 yr (36,391 days)
Aphelion3.3156 AU
Perihelion2.0572 AU
2.6864 AU
4.40 yr (1,608 days)
0° 13m 25.68s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
27.82±7.33 km[6]
34.71±3.0 km[7]
34.80±0.66 km[8]
37.199±0.134 km[9]
40.717±0.350 km[10]
6.63±0.01 h[11][12]
  • (128.0°, −66.0°) (λ11)[5]
  • (246.0°, −76.0°) (λ22)[5]
10.20[7][8][10] · 10.549±0.003 (R)[14] · 10.60[6] · 10.7[1][11]

1294 Antwerpia (prov. designation: 1933 UB1) is a dark background asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt. It was discovered on 24 October 1933, by astronomer Eugène Delporte at the Royal Observatory of Belgium in Uccle.[3] The carbonaceous C-type asteroid has a rotation period of 6.6 hours and measures approximately 35 kilometers (22 miles) in diameter. It was named for the Belgian city of Antwerp.[2]

Orbit and classification[edit]

Antwerpia is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population when applying the hierarchical clustering method to its proper orbital elements.[4][5] It orbits the Sun in the central main belt at a distance of 2.1–3.3 AU once every 4 years and 5 months (1,608 days). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.23 and an inclination of 9° with respect to the ecliptic.[1] the asteroid was first observed as A917 DB at Heidelberg Observatory in February 2017, where the body's observation arc begins one month later in March 1917.[3]


This minor planet was named after the city of Antwerp in Flanders, the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium. The official naming citation was mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955 (H 118).[2]

Physical characteristics[edit]

In the SMASS classification, Antwerpia is a carbonaceous C-type asteroid.[1] It is also a C-type in both the Tholen- and SMASS-like taxonomy of the Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey (S3OS2).[5][13]

Rotation period and poles[edit]

Several rotational lightcurves of Antwerpia have been obtained from photometric observations since 2005. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 6.63 hours with a brightness variation of 0.42 magnitude (U=1/3/3-/3-/3/2).[15][16][17][14][18][12][a]

A 2016-published lightcurve, using modeled photometric data from the Lowell Photometric Database (LPD), gave a concurring period of 6.62521 hours (U=n.a.), as well as two spin axis of (128.0°, −66.0°) and (246.0°, −76.0°) in ecliptic coordinates (λ, β).[19]

Diameter and albedo[edit]

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Antwerpia measures between 27.82 and 40.717 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.0887 and 0.125.[6][7][8][9][10] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.0783 and a diameter of 34.40 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.7.[11]


  1. ^ Lightcurve plot of (1297) Quadea with a rotation period 6.62 hours and a brightness amplitude of 0.42 mag. Quality Code of 3. Taken by Robert Stephens (2014) at U81/CS3. Summary figures at LCDB


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 1294 Antwerpia (1933 UB1)" (2016-11-02 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Archived from the original on 19 August 2020. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(1294) Antwerpia". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 106. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_1295. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c "1294 Antwerpia (1933 UB1)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  4. ^ a b "Asteroid 1294 Antwerpia – Proper Elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  5. ^ a b c d e "Asteroid 1294 Antwerpia". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  7. ^ a b c d Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System. 12: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Retrieved 22 October 2019.
  8. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  9. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  10. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90.
  11. ^ a b c "LCDB Data for (1294) Antwerpia". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  12. ^ a b Lecrone, Crystal; Addleman, Don; Butler, Thomas; Hudson, Erin; Mulvihill, Alex; Reichert, Chris; et al. (September 2005). "2004-2005 winter observing campaign at Rose-Hulman Institute: results for 1098 Hakone, 1182 Ilona, 1294 Antwerpia, 1450 Raimonda, 2251 Tikhov, and 2365 Interkosmos" (PDF). Minor Planet Bulletin. 32 (3): 46–48. Bibcode:2005MPBu...32...46L. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  13. ^ a b Lazzaro, D.; Angeli, C. A.; Carvano, J. M.; Mothé-Diniz, T.; Duffard, R.; Florczak, M. (November 2004). "S3OS2: the visible spectroscopic survey of 820 asteroids" (PDF). Icarus. 172 (1): 179–220. Bibcode:2004Icar..172..179L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.06.006. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  14. ^ a b Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  15. ^ Almeida, R.; Angeli, C. A.; Duffard, R.; Lazzaro, D. (February 2004). "Rotation periods for small main-belt asteroids". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 415: 403–406. Bibcode:2004A&A...415..403A. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20034585.
  16. ^ Stephens, Robert D. (July 2014). "Asteroids Observed from CS3: 2014 January - March" (PDF). Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (3): 171–175. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41..171S. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  17. ^ Klinglesmith, Daniel A., III; Hanowell, Jesse; Risley, Ethan; Turk, Janek; Vargas, Angelica; Warren, Curtis Alan (July 2014). "Lightcurves for Inversion Model Candidates" (PDF). Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (3): 139–143. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41..139K. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 16 March 2020.
  18. ^ Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (1294) Antwerpia". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 14 September 2017.
  19. ^ Ďurech, J.; Hanuš, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Vančo, R. (March 2016). "Asteroid models from the Lowell photometric database". Astronomy and Astrophysics. 587: A48. arXiv:1601.02909. Bibcode:2016A&A...587A..48D. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201527573. ISSN 0004-6361.

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