12th G7 summit
|12th G7 summit|
State Guesthouse, Akasaka Palace
|Dates||May 4–6, 1986|
|Follows||11th G7 summit|
|Precedes||13th G7 summit|
The Group of Seven (G7) was an unofficial forum which brought together the heads of the richest industrialized countries: France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada (since 1976) and the President of the European Commission (starting officially in 1981). The summits were not meant to be linked formally with wider international institutions; and in fact, a mild rebellion against the stiff formality of other international meetings was a part of the genesis of cooperation between France's President Giscard d'Estaing and West Germany's Chancellor Helmut Schmidt as they conceived the first Group of Six (G6) summit in 1975.
Leaders at the summit
The G7 is an unofficial annual forum for the leaders of Canada, the European Commission, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States.
|Core G7 members|
Host state and leader are shown in bold text.
|Canada||Brian Mulroney||Prime Minister|
|West Germany||Helmut Kohl||Chancellor|
|Italy||Bettino Craxi||Prime Minister|
|Japan||Yasuhiro Nakasone||Prime Minister|
|United Kingdom||Margaret Thatcher||Prime Minister|
|United States||Ronald Reagan||President|
|European Community||Gaston Thorn||President of the Commission|
|Ruud Lubbers||President of the Council|
The summit was intended as a venue for resolving differences among its members. As a practical matter, the summit was also conceived as an opportunity for its members to give each other mutual encouragement in the face of difficult economic decisions.
- Cabinet Office, Government of Japan; State Guest House, Akasaka Palace Archived 2013-11-04 at the Wayback Machine; retrieved 2013-6-19.
- Japan, Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MOFA): Summit Meetings in the Past.
- Saunders, Doug. "Weight of the world too heavy for G8 shoulders," Archived 2009-04-29 at WebCite Globe and Mail (Toronto). July 5, 2008 -- n.b., the G7 becomes the Group of Eight (G7) with the inclusion of Russia starting in 1997.
- Reuters: "Factbox: The Group of Eight: what is it?", July 3, 2008.
- Reinalda, Bob and Bertjan Verbeek. (1998). Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations, p. 205.
- Rieffel, Lex. "Regional Voices in Global Governance: Looking to 2010 (Part IV)," Archived June 3, 2010, at the Wayback Machine Brookings. March 27, 2009; "core" members (Muskoka 2010 G-8, official site). Archived June 2, 2010, at the Wayback Machine
- MOFA: Summit (12); European Union: "EU and the G8" Archived 2007-02-26 at the Wayback Machine
- Bayne, Nicholas and Robert D. Putnam. (2000). Hanging in There: The G7 and G8 Summit in Maturity and Renewal. Aldershot, Hampshire, England: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7546-1185-1; OCLC 43186692 (Archived 2009-04-29)
- Reinalda, Bob and Bertjan Verbeek. (1998). Autonomous Policy Making by International Organizations. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-16486-3; ISBN 978-0-203-45085-7; OCLC 39013643