12th New Zealand Parliament

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The 12th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1893 general election in November and December of that year.

1893 general election[edit]

In the 1892 electoral redistribution, population shift to the North Island required the transfer of one seat from the South Island to the north. The resulting ripple effect saw every electorate established in 1890 have its boundaries altered, and 14 new electorates were established. Of those, eight electorates were established for the first time: Bay of Plenty, Otaki, Pareora, Patea, Riccarton, Waiapu, Waimea-Sounds, and Wellington Suburbs. The remaining six electorates had existed before, and they were re-established for the 12th Parliament: Caversham, Chalmers, Lyttelton, Rangitata, Waihemo, and Waipa.[1]

The 1893 general election was held on Tuesday, 28 November in the general electorates and on Wednesday, 20 December in the Māori electorates, respectively.[2] A total of 74 MPs were elected; 30 represented North Island electorates, 40 represented South Island electorates, and the remaining four represented Māori electorates.[3] 302,997 voters were enrolled and the official turnout at the election was 75.3%.[2]


The 12th Parliament sat for three sessions, and was prorogued on 14 November 1896.[4]

Session Opened Adjouned
first 21 June 1894 24 October 1894
second 20 June 1895 1 November 1895
third 11 June 1896 17 October 1896


The Liberal Government of New Zealand had taken office on 24 January 1891.[5] John Ballance, who had been leading the Ballance Ministry, had died on 27 April 1893[6] and had been succeeded by the Seddon Ministry under Richard Seddon.[7] The Seddon Ministry remained in power for the whole term of this Parliament and held power until Seddon's death on 10 June 1906.[8]

Initial composition of the 12th Parliament[edit]

74 seats were created across 66 electorates. 62 electorates returned a single member and four electoral districts had three representatives each.[9] The Liberal party was the only established party structure at the time.


 Liberal    Independent    Opposition        Liberal-Labour

Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1893[10][11]
Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up
General electorates
Ashburton Edward George Wright John McLachlan 26 Cathcart Wason
Ashley Richard Meredith 590 David Duncan Macfarlane
Auckland, City of Alfred Cadman George Grey 2,233 Thomas Tudehope[12]
Thomas Thompson William Crowther 438
John Shera Charles Button 68
Avon Edwin Blake William Tanner 653 George McIntyre
Awarua Joseph Ward (uncontested)
Bay of Islands Robert Houston 231 James Trounsen[13]
Bay of Plenty (new electorate) William Kelly 209 Henry Burton[14]
Bruce James Allen (uncontested)
Buller Eugene O'Conor Roderick McKenzie
Caversham (new electorate) Arthur Morrison
Chalmers (new electorate) John A. Millar
Christchurch, City of Ebenezer Sandford William Whitehouse Collins
William Pember Reeves
Richard Molesworth Taylor George Smith
Clutha Thomas Mackenzie
Dunedin, City of William Hutchison
David Pinkerton
Henry Fish William Earnshaw
Eden Edwin Mitchelson 1,161 Malcolm Niccol
Egmont Felix McGuire 135 Benjamin Robbins
Ellesmere John Hall William Montgomery
Franklin Ebenezer Hamlin Benjamin Harris 89 William Massey
Grey Arthur Guinness
Hawke's Bay William Russell 70 Charles William Reardon[15]
Inangahua Robert Stout Patrick O'Regan
Invercargill James Kelly
Kaiapoi Richard Moore David Buddo
Lyttelton (new electorate) John Joyce
Manukau Frank Buckland Maurice O'Rorke 252 Frank Buckland
Marsden Robert Thompson[nb 1] Robert Thompson 1,010 James Harrison[13]
Masterton Alexander Hogg 1,228 Joseph Harkness
Mataura George Richardson Robert McNab
Napier George Henry Swan Samuel Carnell 520 George Henry Swan
Nelson Joseph Harkness John Graham
New Plymouth Edward Metcalf Smith 491 Robert Trimble
Oamaru Thomas Duncan
Otaki (new electorate) James Wilson
Palmerston James Wilson Frederick Pirani
Pareora (new electorate) Frederick Flatman
Parnell Frank Lawry 334 William Shepherd Allen
Patea (new electorate) George Hutchison
Rangitata (new electorate) William Maslin
Rangitikei Robert Bruce John Stevens
Riccarton (new electorate) George Russell
Selwyn Alfred Saunders
Taieri Walter Carncross
Thames James McGowan 311 Edmund Taylor
Timaru William Hall-Jones 407 Edward George Kerr
Tuapeka Hugh Valentine Vincent Pyke
Waihemo (new electorate) John McKenzie
Waiapu (new electorate) James Carroll 497 Cecil de Lautour
Waikato Edward Lake Alfred Cadman 75 Isaac Coates[11]
Waikouaiti James Green
Waimea-Sounds (new electorate) Charles H. Mills
Waipa (new electorate) Frederic Lang 989 Gerald Peacock[16]
Waipawa William Smith Charles Hall 378 George Hunter
Wairarapa Walter Clarke Buchanan 690 George Augustus Fairbrother[17]
Wakatipu Thomas Fergus William Fraser
Wairau Lindsay Buick 322 William Sinclair
Waitaki John McKenzie William Steward
Waitemata Jackson Palmer[nb 2] Richard Monk 239 Jackson Palmer
Wallace James Mackintosh
Wanganui John Ballance Archibald Willis
Wellington Suburbs (new electorate) Alfred Newman
Wellington, City of John Duthie
George Fisher Francis Bell
William McLean Robert Stout
Westland Richard Seddon (uncontested)
Māori electorates[nb 3]
Eastern Maori James Carroll Wi Pere
Northern Maori Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa Hone Heke Ngapua
Southern Maori Tame Parata 185 Teoti Pita Mutu
Western Maori Hoani Taipua Ropata Te Ao 90 Pepene Eketone

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Robert Thompson was an Independent in the previous Parliament
  2. ^ Jackson Palmer was listed as Government in contemporary media, but as an Independent by Wilson
  3. ^ The affiliation of many of the Māori candidates is unknown or uncertain

By-elections during 12th Parliament[edit]

There were a number of changes during the term of the 12th Parliament.

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner
Waitemata 1894 9 April Richard Monk Election declared invalid William Massey
Tuapeka 1894 9 July Vincent Pyke Death William Larnach
City of Auckland 1895 24 July George Grey Resignation Thomas Thompson
City of Christchurch 1896 13 February William Reeves Appointed Agent-General   Charles Lewis


  1. ^ McRobie 1989, pp. 59f.
  2. ^ a b "General elections 1853–2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  3. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 90.
  4. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 68.
  5. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 40.
  6. ^ McIvor, Timothy L. "Ballance, John 1839–1893". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  7. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 40–41.
  8. ^ Hamer, David. "Seddon, Richard John - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011. 
  9. ^ "Appendix to the Journals of the House of Representatives - The General Election 1893". Ministry for Culture and Heritage. 1894. Retrieved 27 November 2013. 
  10. ^ "The General Election, 1893". National Library. 1894. pp. 1–4. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  11. ^ a b "The General Election". Otago Daily Times. 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  12. ^ "Electorate City of Auckland". Auckland Star XXIV (273). 17 November 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  13. ^ a b "Page 4 Advertisements Column 3". The Northern Advocate. 25 November 1893. p. 4. Retrieved 19 November 2013. 
  14. ^ "Public Notice". Bay of Plenty Times. 20 November 1893. p. 5. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  15. ^ "Hawke's Bay Electorate". Hawke's Bay Herald. XXVIII (9544). 2 December 1893. p. 3. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 
  16. ^ "The General Elections". The Press L (8651). 28 November 1893. p. 6. Retrieved 29 November 2013. 
  17. ^ Cyclopedia Company Limited (1897). "Borough Of Carterton". The Cyclopedia of New Zealand : Wellington Provincial District. Wellington: The Cyclopedia of New Zealand. Retrieved 30 November 2013. 


  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. 
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer. 
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. 

External links[edit]