(Redirected from 1300–1309)
The 1300s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1300, and ended on December 31, 1309.
- 1 Events
- 1.1 1300
- 1.2 1301
- 1.3 1302
- 1.4 1303
- 1.5 1304
- 1.6 1305
- 1.7 1306
- 1.8 1307
- 1.9 1308
- 1.10 1309
- 2 Significant people
- 3 Births
- 4 Deaths
- 5 References
- February 22 – The Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII is celebrated. It is at this celebration that Giovanni Villani decides to write his universal history of Florence, the Cronica.
- June 15 – The city of Bilbao receives a royal foundation charter.
- Money from Florence, Italy becomes the first international currency.
- Philip IV of France begins his attempt to annex Flanders.
- Wenceslas II of Bohemia becomes King of Poland.
- A census in Imperial China finds that it has roughly 60 million inhabitants.
- The Tuareg establish a state centered on Agadez.
- Amsterdam is officially declared a city.
- Jacob ben Machir is appointed dean of the medical school at Montpellier, France.
- Aztec culture starts in Mesoamerica (approximate date).
- The Dulcinian sect begins when Gherardo Segarelli, founder of the Apostolic Brethren, is burned at the stake in Parma, during a brutal repression of the Apostolics.
- January 14 – Andrew III of Hungary dies, ending the Arpad Dynasty in Hungary.
- February 7 – Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales.
- March 3 – Emperor Go-Nijō succeeds Emperor Go-Fushimi on the throne of Japan.
- November 1 – Charles, Count of Valois, enters Florence with the Black Guelphs, who in the next six days destroy much of the city, kill many of their enemies and install a new government under Cante dei Gabrielli da Gubbio as podestà, leading to the permanent exile of Dante Alighieri from the city.
- May 18 – Bruges Matins: The French garrison in Bruges is massacred at night, by members of the local Flemish militia.
- June 12 – Rakvere, Estonia, receives Lübeck city rights.
- July 11 – Battle of the Golden Spurs (also called the Battle of Courtrai): the County of Flanders gains a major victory over the Kingdom of France.
- July 27 – Battle of Bapheus: The Ottoman Turks defeat the Byzantine Empire, heralding the Turkish conquest of Bithynia.
- September 24 – Charles II of Naples makes peace with Frederick III of Sicily under the Treaty of Caltabellotta, ending the War of the Sicilian Vespers.
- September 26 – Fall of Ruad: The last Crusader stronghold in the Levant is conquered.
- October 4 – A peace treaty between the Byzantine Empire and the Republic of Venice ends the Byzantine–Venetian War (1296–1302).
- November 18 – Boniface VIII publishes the Papal bull Unam Sanctam.
- Roger de Flor founds the Catalan Company, with soldiers (Almogavars) jobless after the Treaty of Caltabellotta.
- Castile occupies the harbor of Algiers.
- Jičín, Bohemia is chartered as a city.
- Pope Boniface VIII suppresses the Franciscans.
- The Estates General of France meets for the first time.
- Dante Alighieri is exiled from Florence by the Black Guelphs, as is Petrarch's father (see Guelphs and Ghibellines).
- Robert the Bruce, king of Scotland, reconciles with Edward I of England.
- Philip IV of France confiscates Jewish property.
- The Confucian Temple is erected in Beijing.
- February 24 – Battle of Roslin: The Scots defeat the English.
- April 4 – Battle of Arques: The Flemings defeat the French.
- April 20 – Pope Boniface VIII founds the University of Rome La Sapienza.
- May 29 – The Treaty of Paris restores Gascony to the English.
- August 8 – An earthquake destroys the Lighthouse of Alexandria in Egypt, one of the seven wonders of the world.
- September 7 - William of Nogaret imprisons Pope Boniface VIII on behalf of Philip IV of France.
- October 22 – Pope Benedict XI succeeds Pope Boniface VIII, as the 194th pope.
- Wars of Scottish Independence: Edward I of England resumes his campaign against William Wallace and others in Scotland, holding court in Dunfermline Abbey.
- Battle of Dimbos: The Ottoman Turks under Osman I defeat the Byzantines.
- The Khalji Dynasty under Alauddin Khalji conquers Chittorgarh in northern India, after taking the massive Chittor Fort.
- The Avoirdupois system of weights and measures is introduced to England and Wales.
- Siege of Amsterdam: Kennemers and Waterlanders lay siege against Amsterdam for a year.
- February – Wars of Scottish Independence: John "Red" Comyn, Lord of Badenoch, negotiates a peace with the Kingdom of England, at Strathord near Perth.
- July 20 – Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence.
- August 17 – The Battle of Mons-en-Pévèle is fought to a draw, between the French army and the Flemish militias.
- October 24 – Sasa Bey of the Beylik of Menteşe conquers Ephesus from the Eastern Roman Empire, massacring and deporting its native population.
- James II of Aragon reconquers Villena, Spain.
- Holland and Zeeland are occupied by John II, Duke of Brabant and Guy of Dampierre. John II, Count of Hainaut recovers the counties.
- Ala-ud-din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, conquers Gujarat.
- A peace treaty, signed between the khanates of the Mongol Empire, ends the Mongol civil war.
- The Genoese Benedetto I Zaccaria takes control of Chios Island from the Byzantine Empire, establishing an autonomous lordship there.
- The construction of Ypres Cloth Hall is completed.
- June 5 – Pope Clement V, formerly the Archbishop of Bordeaux Bertrand de Got, succeeds Pope Benedict XI as the 195th pope, and is crowned at Lyon.
- July – Battle of Apros between the Catalan Company and the Byzantine Empire.
- August 5 – English troops capture William Wallace.
- February 10 – Scottish Wars of Independence: Before the high altar of Greyfriars Church in Dumfries, Robert the Bruce murders John Comyn, his leading political rival, sparking revolution.
- March 25 – Robert the Bruce becomes King of the Scots.
- May – Hugh the younger Despenser, favourite of Edward, Prince of Wales, marries heiress Eleanor de Clare.
- May 15 – One of the first exchange contracts (cambium) to mention the city of Bruges involves two parties: Giovanni Villani, representing the Peruzzi Company, granting a loan to Tommaso Fini, representing the Gallerani Company of Siena.
- June 19 – Battle of Methven: The forces of the Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruce's Scottish rebels.
- June – The Knights Hospitaller conquer the islands of Kos (briefly) and Kastellorizo, and begin their conquest of Rhodes.
- September 29 – The Hatuna Games are played in Sweden.
- December 6 – The monetary policy of Philippe le Bel triggers a revolt in Paris. The provost's house is burned, and the king has to flee to the fortress of the Temple .
- Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France, and confiscates their property.
- In London, a city ordinance decrees that heating with coal is forbidden when Parliament is in session (the ordinance is not particularly effective).
- The Mongols raid India.
- January 18 – King Albert I of Germany raises his son Rudolf to the throne, of the Kingdom of Bohemia.
- July 7 – Edward II becomes King of England.
- September 5 – Pope Clement V confirms the Knights Hospitaller possession of Rhodes, although only Feracle has fallen to their attacks.
- October 13 (Friday the 13th, at dawn) – All Knights Templar in France are simultaneously arrested by agents of King Philip IV, to be later tortured into "confessing" heresy.
- November 18 (according to legend) – William Tell shoots an apple off his son's head in Altdorf in Switzerland.
- January 25 – King Edward II of England marries Isabella of France. They are both crowned a month later (on February 25).
- March 8 – Póvoa de Varzim (then Varazim), Portugal gains a foral from Denis of Portugal.
- April 15 – Abu Hammu I ascends to the throne of the Kingdom of Tlemcen after the death of his brother Abu-I Zayyan.
- October 13 – Walter Reynolds is consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury, in England.
- November 27 – Henry VII, King of Germany, is elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
- December 28 – Emperor Hanazono ascends to the throne of Japan.
- The Capet-Anjou family begins to rule Hungary.
- The Sultanate of Rûm ends.
- King Philip IV of France purchases the Hôtel de Nesle, and builds one of the earliest indoor tennis courts there.
- approx. date – Dante Alighieri begins to write the Divine Comedy.
- March 9 – Pope Clement V settles the papal seat in Avignon, following a visit.
- August 15 – The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. John, completing their conquest of Rhodes. The knights establish their headquarters on the island, and rename themselves as the Knights of Rhodes.
- September 12 – Ferdinand IV of Castile captures the town of Gibraltar, in his campaign against the Emirate of Granada.
- The first known historical records are made, of the village of Lukáčovce, Slovakia.
- Alnwick Castle, Northumberland, is bought by the Percy Family, later Earls of Northumberland, in England.
- Lock, Peter (2013). The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Routledge. p. 123. ISBN 9781135131371.
- Foss, Clive (1979). Ephesus After Antiquity: A Late Antique, Byzantine, and Turkish City. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 144. ISBN 0521220866.
- Lock, Peter (2013). The Routledge Companion to the Crusades. Routledge. p. 124. ISBN 9781135131371.
- Miller, William (1921). "The Zaccaria of Phocaea and Chios (1275-1329)". Essays on the Latin Orient. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 283–298.
- Luttrell, Anthony (1975). "The Hospitallers at Rhodes, 1306–1421". In Hazard, Harry W. A History of the Crusades, Volume III: The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 278–313. ISBN 0-299-06670-3.
- Favier, Jean (2012). Le Bourgeois de Paris au Moyen Age. Paris: Tallandier. p. 135.
- Nirenberg, David (1998). Communities of violence: persecution of minorities in the Middle Ages. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 18. ISBN 0-691-05889-X.
- Holland, John (1841). The history and description of fossil fuel, the collieries, and coal trade of Great Britain. London: Whittaker and Company. pp. 313–314.
- Bernard Grun, The Timetables of History, Simon & Schuster, 3rd ed, 1991. ISBN 0671749196. p185